Abstracts 2023

This searchable presentation list displays information on the projects our students presented at SURCA 2023. Through it, you can explore the titles and abstracts of the projects our students presented that year. Also, be sure to visit our list of SURCA 2023 award winners!

How do you look up a particular student presenter at SURCA 2023? All WSU Vancouver student presenters? Names and projects of students working with a specific faculty mentor? This searchable presentation list displays information on cards that can answer all of these questions. Each card gives all of the details for every project that will be presented at SURCA 2021. In most cases, a project will be presented by a single student, but some of our projects will be presented by multiple students who did their work as a team. A word search box and series of sorting buttons are provided to help you easily find what you need.

  • Each poster will be identified by the poster ID number, which is unique, at the top of the card.
  • Category shows which of 9 SURCA 2022 groups this presentation is in. Each category is color-coded.
  • Project title shows the name of the project—also called the abstract title. Selecting the “+” button will show you the full abstract describing the research; to close it, select on the “-” button.
  • Student presenter(s) names list all who worked on this project.
  • Coauthor(s) indicates what the student(s) list as their academic major.
  • Major(s) indicates what the student(s) list as their academic major.
  • Mentor(s) are the faculty who work with the student(s) on this research.
  • Campus indicates at which WSU campus the presenter(s) are students.
Poster NumberCategoryTitlePresented ByStudent NameCo-authorsMajor(s)Mentored ByMentor NameCampusAbstract
1Applied SciencesCharis WilliamsWilliamsTeresa Rangel, Marian Wilson, Ross BindlerNursing (BSN)Marian WilsonWilsonSpokane

Purpose: To determine relationships between working condition, shift, and macro/micronutrient intake among acute care Registered Nurses (RNs) working full-time, 12-hour shifts during COVID-19.

Background: Although shift work is essential for maintaining around-the-clock care in hospitals, RNs working night shift experience disrupted sleep patterns and higher risk for diet-related illnesses such as Type 2 Diabetes. Also, stress has been strongly linked to poorer diet quality and excessive macronutrient consumption. The COVID-19 pandemic presented a unique opportunity to examine relationships between shift condition, working status, and macronutrient intake among acute care RNs during a period of increased stress.

Methods: RNs working full-time, 12-hour shifts from ten hospitals across the Western U.S. were recruited from October 2020-2021. Consented study participants entered dietary data into the MyFitnessPal software for seven consecutive days. Reported sodium, saturated fat, and total sugar levels were averaged and compared between conditions: on-duty versus off-duty and day versus night shift. Groups were compared using a series of one-tailed independent samples t-tests conducted in Excel with significance set at 0.05.

Results: No significant differences in macro/micronutrient intake were found when comparing 24 night and 28 day shift RNs on-duty versus off-duty (p>0.05) or when working day versus night shift (p>0.05). After stratifying RNs’ work condition by shift type, significant differences emerged. Off-duty, day shift nurses reported significantly more sodium intake on average (m=2.36 g) compared to night shift nurses (m=1.99 g, p=0.02) and significantly more saturated fat intake (m=23.97 g, m=20.50, respectively; p=0.04). However, when on-duty, night shift nurses reported more sodium intake on average (m=2.35 g) compared to day shift nurses (m=1.97; p=0.03).

Implications and Further Research: This study supported RNs may consume sodium and saturated fat differently when on-duty versus off-duty, particularly when working day compared to night shift. Nurse leaders may support night shift workers by ensuring healthy foods low in sodium are available while at work, especially during times of increased occupational stressors such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Future research is warranted to describe more completely nursing dietary habits and to offer resources for healthy eating regardless of shift type or work condition to prevent diet-related illnesses.

2Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyJennifer LopezLopezAngeliqua Montoya, Christopher Dexheimer, Kyson Jensen, Joel Griffitts, Hanna Delgado, Stephanie PorterBiologyAngeliqua Montoya, Stephanie PorterMontoyaVancouver

Beneficial microbes are critical for plant and animal health. In the legume-rhizobium mutualism, rhizobia bacteria form root nodules on plants and provide nitrogen to plants in exchange for carbohydrates. However, plants and their associated microbes tend to be locally adapted to their environment and coadapted to one another. Local adaptation is an evolutionary mechanism whereby organisms evolve to have greater fitness in their local environment compared to other environments the species inhabits. Therefore, we hypothesize rhizobium will be more beneficial for plants that come from the same environment. Seeds of Acmispon wrangelianus and strains of nitrogen-fixing Mesorhizobium bacteria were collected from Jasper Ridge in California from contrasting soils: Serpentine soils are stressful due to toxic levels of heavy metals and low nutrients, while non-serpentine soils are relatively benign with higher nutrient availability. Mesorhizobia from serpentine soils have adapted to tolerate heavy metals, particularly nickel, due to the presence of a cluster of genes. However, these genes are absent in strains that come from non-serpentine soil. We ask, 1) Do nickel tolerant Mesorhizobium reduce stress for plants in the presence of nickel? and 2) Is there coadaptation between Mesorhizobium and plants from the same environment? To test this, we inoculated six plant genotypes with 1-strain or 2-strain combinations of serpentine and non-serpentine strains in the presence or absence of nickel. Mesorhizobium strains were labeled with red or green fluorescence to differentiate strains and count nodules in 2-strain inocula. We predict nickel tolerant strains will reduce stress of plants compared to plants inoculated with non-nickel tolerant strains. Alternatively, nickel tolerant strains may form more nodules compared to non-nickel tolerant strains but not reduce stress for plants. We find that nickel tolerant strains do not reduce stress for plants and there is no coadaptation between plants and rhizobia from the same environment. However, this finding could be due to cross-contamination as evidenced by contamination in our negative controls. Our results suggest that nickel tolerance in Mesorhizobia may help these bacteria survive when free-living in serpentine soil, but not in symbiosis. Plants from serpentine soils may have separate adaptations to tolerate these stressful environments.

3Engineering and Physical SciencesClara EhingerEhingerBenjamin Kee, Su HaChemical EngineeringSu HaHaPullman

Highly dispersed nanoparticles have been shown to provide a more cost-effective catalyst through increased exposure to active sites. Electrodeposition provides a promising synthesis technique to deposit copper nanoparticles on sulfur-doped graphene support. Overpotential deposition (OPD), is commonly used for plating metals, however, the nucleation and growth of particles using OPD results in an inhomogeneous distribution of sizes and allows particles to aggregate and become larger, thus decreasing the active sites per total quantity of deposited metal. Underpotential deposition (UPD) on sulfur-doped graphene provides a potential alternative. Sulfur, a common catalyst poison provides increased attraction between the deposited metal and the graphene support but does not poison the catalyst as the sulfur is contained in the graphene structure. Therefore, during UPD, copper is only deposited onto the sulfur sites which leads to highly dispersed copper clusters. Initial testing of this concept has shown it to be successful at the bench scale. Further testing is being done to optimize the process and characterize the effects of changing the duration of deposition, the concentration of the copper solution, and other variables. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) will be used to characterize each catalyst. Once a highly dispersed copper on sulfur-doped graphene catalyst has been synthesized and shown through the characterization techniques above to have nanoclusters, the copper will be galvanically displaced in a palladium solution to create a highly dispersed palladium on carbon catalyst. Our resulting catalysts (highly dispersed copper or palladium on carbon) will be tested for their electrochemical activities using electrochemical ethanol reforming as a model reaction.

4Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyNatalie CharbonneauCharbonneauKathleen StaffordEnvironmental and Ecosystem SciencesKathleen StaffordStaffordGlobal

There are three distinct ecotypes of orcas (Orcinus orca) found in the North Pacific: residents, transients, and off-shore. Acoustic research on resident orcas has found that resident orcas have distinct acoustic groups. Clans are groups of resident orca pods which share common calls and each pod has a repertoire of distinct calls known as their dialect. Resident calls are known to be passed on maternally for generations. Transient orcas are less vocal than residents and their acoustic patterns have not been studied as thoroughly. As transient orcas do not remain with their matriline through life, it has been thought they do not share pod-specific acoustic dialects. However, more recent research has suggested this may not be the case. If transients do have group-specific dialects, this would be extremely informative in gathering more specific data on their migration patterns. As climate change pushes apex predators such as transient orcas further north, increased ability to track specific pods via acoustic data would be helpful in understanding the extent of migratory changes and potential impacts on ecosystems.

This study sought to examine previously obtained hydrophone data from four locations in the North Pacific for region-specific acoustic patterns. The locations being studied are Anadyr Strait, Beaufort Sea, Bering Strait, and Chukchi Sea. Sound files from each area are being spliced into single call files, which are then categorized based on criteria such as previously defined call types and any new types/subtypes that may arise as a part of this project. Data will be processed by human listening and spectrograms (when needed). This data will be helpful in further developing the transient acoustic call catalog and investigating the possibility of pod-specific dialects among transient orcas.

5Social SciencesRoss CarterCarterEconomic SciencesMark GibsonGibsonGlobal

The purpose of this project is to determine the impact of government intervention on the rental market during the COVID pandemic. Rising rent prices have impacted millions of Americans and disproportionately burdens lower income Americans especially. While there are a multitude of factors that play into this, this project seeks to isolate the effect of the rent moratorium on these price raises. By focusing on this specific policy, the intention is to shed light on potential downsides to such action and identify recommendations to alleviate these issues.

To that end, regression analysis will be used to measure the relationship between multiple variables and rental costs. These variables include the vacancy rate, renter income, inflation, and the comparison of rental prices from before the rent moratorium to after. This model will then be coupled with knowledge gathered from existing research to explain what relationship exists between this policy and rent prices.

7Social SciencesAshley Robillard, Karen VelozRobillardDavid MakinBiology, Criminal Justice and CriminologyDavid MakinMakinVancouver

In 2017, the Rapid DNA Act was signed into law authorizing the development of processes supporting the implementation of Rapid DNA Technology within the United States. Rapid DNA Technology is a commercial instrument enabling the analysis and comparison of DNA samples within a few hours, instead of days, weeks, or months when submitted to a crime laboratory expediting forensic cases by matching suspects with evidence and missing person cases, cold cases, and in the laboratory assisting in evidence backup. While considerable research has been undertaken on the instrumentation, validating the efficacy of the technology, and examining the integration of the technology within DNA workflows, limited research has examined organizational and operational readiness among police agencies or evaluated to what extent police agencies are interested in pursuing Rapid DNA technology. The purpose of this research is to benchmark the state of preparedness and readiness associated with DNA forensic evidence and determine the suitability of Rapid DNA technology expansion in Washington State.  Using a revised DNA benchmarking instrument, a 29-question survey was distributed to 234 Washington State police agencies assessing the DNA workflow with targeted collection concerning identified barriers commonly highlighted in research.  Results supply insight into organizational and operational preparedness and readiness documenting considerable variability among responding agencies. While agency respondents indicated having considerable experience with DNA forensic evidence, some agencies felt unprepared for implementing Rapid DNA technology, and in some instances did not believe Rapid DNA was suitable for implementation. These results of Washington agency's forensic experience and perspective of Rapid DNA preparement will assist in bridging the 10-year gap of absent research and enable a deeper understanding of the ways forensic practice among law enforcement has changed.

9Applied SciencesYuness BadieiBadieiJosue Campos do PradoElectrical EngineeringJosue Campos do PradoCampos do PradoVancouver

The use of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and battery energy storage (BES) systems in commercial and residential buildings has been increasing significantly in recent years. Most of these systems, however, are designed to solely minimize the investment and operation costs. With the increasing concerns on natural disasters and their impact on power system resilience, there is a substantial need for integrating outage risks in power system infrastructure planning problems. This paper investigates the impact of select technical and financial factors on the feasibility of PV and BES systems to provide greater resilience in commercial and residential buildings. Simulation studies are conducted using the Renewable Energy Integration & Optimization (REopt) decision support software to optimize the size of solar PV and BES systems for both financial and resiliency purposes considering different combinations of geographic locations, load profiles, electricity rates, and outage durations. The feasibility assessment is conducted by analyzing and comparing the net present value (NPV) for each combination of parameters. 

10Arts and DesignEmily DuttonDuttonInterior DesignAlana Pulay, Kristin PungPulayPullman

Using Evidence-Based Design (EBD), the design of Oak Tree Elementary encapsulates an environment that generates academic growth, sparks creativity through interactive learning, and immerses students in a biophilic space. The design process and creation stemmed from analyzing Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in education and exploring research and studies discussing the benefits of hands-on learning and creating a connection to nature at a young age.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in education shows the benefits of creating spaces that seamlessly support the natural characteristics and needs of people. In early education, allowing access to these environments can provide a space for students to flourish academically, physically, and socially. The design consideration of these needs is reflected in the custom-designed additions throughout each space, flexible seating configurations, and activity zones designed for both individual and group needs.

Opening the door to hands-on learning encourages collaboration and teamwork while also providing a more engaging way to learn. It can lead to better information retention and improved student attention. Interactive furniture, custom-designed teaching units, and modular furniture assists in creating flexible multi-use spaces that motivate students to engage with the information they are learning.  

Exposing students to nature and the outdoors supports their cognitive development, intending to positively impact students’ overall performance in school, mental and physical health, and interpersonal relationships. Incorporating elements that reflect those seen in nature into the interior spaces, including curvilinear-shaped furniture, organic patterns, and a natural yet playful color palette, aids in creating a fluid connection to nature.

Oak Tree Elementary supports the development of children in academia while giving the teachers and faculty the greatest resources to do so. Keeping in mind the developmental stages of young children entering an academic environment, the design provides flexibility for teachers and student knowledge acquisition. The design achieves an atmosphere that impacts the students and teachers, provoking an enriching academic desire. It immerses the occupants in a stimulating and responsive space, fit for the growing minds of early education.

11Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyPeter MartinakMartinakManish Chauhan, Alan GoodmanBiochemistryAlan Goodman, Manish ChauhanGoodmanPullman

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. At the cellular level, pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide membranes or nucleic acids and activate an immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionary conserved membrane-bound receptors and a class of PRRs. The Discovery of the Toll receptor in Drosophila melanogaster and its signaling pathway drastically improved the understanding of innate immunity. Toll receptors are involved in embryonic development and immunity. There are nine Toll (Tl) genes encoded by the Drosophila genome. Tl-1 was the first Toll receptor identified for its role in the induction of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) upon gram-positive bacteria or fungal infection. Biological functions for all other Toll receptors have not been fully deciphered yet, but several studies suggest they play roles in innate immunity. Drosophila Tl-9 is the only Toll receptor that is structurally similar to mammalian TLRs. In silico analysis of Tl-9 shows the presence of a dsRNA binding motif that is structurally homologous to the ectodomain of mammalian TLR-3. We hypothesize that Tl-9 plays role in antiviral immunity by regulating the RNAi pathway. Results show that Drosophila Tl-9 mutants are highly susceptible to Drosophila C virus (DCV) infection compared to isogenic control flies. DCV-infected Tl-9 mutant flies exhibit decreased dicer-2 induction, a marker of antiviral RNAi. Additionally, vago and vir-1, two antiviral cytokines, are induced less in infected Tl-9 mutant flies. Our results show that Tl-9 is crucial for an efficient immune response to DCV infection in Drosophila.

12Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesGuangbei YiYiWen Li, Jinyang Ruan, Long Cheng, Xiapu Luo, Haipeng CaiSoftware EngineeringHaipeng CaiCaiPullman

Fuzzing tests are a great software testing technique that has been widely used by the software industry. The core idea is to input automatically or semi-automatically generated random data into a program and monitor program exceptions, such as crashes and assertion failures, to find possible program errors, such as memory leaks. As the construction of big software systems using multiple programming languages becomes increasingly prevalent, it introduces additional security vulnerabilities in the resulting code. However, single-language fuzzers cannot find multi-language vulnerabilities as commonly existing fuzzers are restricted by single-language systems. Therefore, our team presents a new gray-box fuzzer that holistically fuzzes multi-language systems and provides coverage feedback.

My job was to use commonly used fuzzers software to run those drivers with a single-language benchmark provided by the Google OSS-Fuzz project and compare the results with our new fuzzer. I also wrote a new test driver for multi-language projects and evaluated it. First, I set up the Docker container environment for the single-language benchmark, including Java, Python, and C programming languages. Then, I deployed a script to monitor each of the fuzzer's running processes and collect the coverage report results.

We also found an issue about incorrect counting target library coverage block. It caused the number of coverage reports to be higher than the actual target library coverage number. So, I fixed that issue in Jazzer, which is a single-language fuzzer for the Java programming language. Our conclusion is that our fuzzer has higher coverage compared to single-language fuzzers when working under the same conditions.

Next, I mainly focused on writing a new multi-language test driver to evaluate the performance of the project and find new multilingual vulnerabilities. This task was more challenging because the entire project contains different programming language subsystems, which means the programmer should consider the seeds and workflow carefully. Only the correct mutation can increase the number of coverage blocks and cross more branch predicates. Thanks to our new mutation rules based on the data flow, the efficiency of seed mutation has been certified, which has significantly improved compared to traditional fuzzers.

Overall, our new gray-box fuzzer has proved to be effective in finding vulnerabilities in multi-language systems, which is not possible with single-language fuzzers. By using our fuzzer, software developers can increase the security of their systems and improve their overall performance.

13Engineering and Physical SciencesKatherine BusiekBusiekLiane MoreauChemistryLiane MoreauMoreauPullman

Nanoparticles (NPs), which are small particles composed of 10s to 1000s of atoms, have created new and exciting opportunities within the medical industry. An often-effective cancer treatment, radiotherapy comes with indiscriminate damage to the body from the therapeutic radioactive isotopes being used. These unintentional damages lead to unwanted health effects, including tissue damage and disruption of normal cell function. With the use of NPs, a safer and more efficient method to deliver medical isotopes to the site of treatment could help lessen cellular damage. Because of their small size, NPs can penetrate cells (including tumor cells) that more commonly used medications and treatments cannot target specifically. The specific aim of this project is to combine NP medical isotope delivery with other therapeutic strategies to maximize effectiveness. This research project began in the spring semester of 2020 and has continued with the support of an Undergraduate Research Fellowship from the Office of Undergraduate Research for the 2022-2023 academic year.  In so, iron oxide NPs are made, allowing the system to benefit from their magnetic and imaging properties. The medical isotopes are incorporated into the iron oxide NPs to cause less damage within the body as it travels to the tumor site by limiting non-preferential release. The location and structure of the NPs once the medical isotopes are incorporated, and the concentration of medical isotopes encased into the NP are determined using X-ray and imaging techniques. These NPs are then coated with gold to construct a more targeted delivery system. The gold coating allows the attachment of biological delivery molecules to the NPs. Results to date show effective synthesis and incorporation of a medical isotope surrogate into iron nanoparticles and preliminary work highlights the formation of a gold coating. The unusual incorporation of lutetium into iron oxide has also been discovered and is being explored further to investigate the emergent behavior of this new material.

14HumanitiesSamuel NeunzigNeunzigGarrett ToombsAnthropology, Human BiologyRachel HorowitzHorowitzPullman

Technology studies often assume that new technologies arise due to improvements in the efficiency of one type of tool over another. This is assumed to be the case for the widespread use of the bow and arrow, which replaced the atlatl, as the most common projectile weapon. However, ethnographically, some groups use the atlatl and bow interchangeably depending on what was best suited to the situation. Archaeologically, the difficulty in identifying the  atlatl dart vs arrow points from only stone points, makes it more difficult to understand the nature and timing of the replacement of one technology by the other. Here, I present an experimental study of the effectiveness in penetration and velocity in the atlatl vs the longbow to understand if the bow and arrow was advantageous in these areas, which would provide evidence for the reasons for its adoption. The experiment was performed using recreated bows and atlatls with stone and metal points. Data collected included the average penetration depth and the velocity of each implement. These data will be compared between the experimental bows and atlatls to determine which had higher velocity and greater penetration, used here as proxies for efficiency. This experiment has implications for understanding the shifts in tool use by past peoples and understanding how different tools may be more useful depending on the intended function of that tool.

15Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyJacob BuursmaBuursmaJacob BuursmaNeuroscienceKristen Delevich, Ryan McLaughlinDelevichPullman

The widespread recreational legalization of cannabis has been accompanied by increasing rates of use and the declining perceived harmfulness of its effects. Over the past decade, major developments in understanding the neurocircuitry affected by chronic cannabis use have been made, but its effect on the development of the adolescent brain, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in particular, remains uncertain. Current models of exogenous cannabinoid action may be based on representations of circuit function that underestimate the role of the CNS immune support cell microglia, which have recently been proven to express a variety of cannabinoid receptors and are part of the quadripartite synapse responsible for neuronal communication. Furthermore, microglia play an integral role in synaptic remodeling of the mPFC during adolescence, a process which is known to be altered upon exposure to THC. Therefore, we propose a novel investigation into the role of microglia in the modulation of corticostriatal activity during adolescent brain development in mice following prolonged exposure to cannabis vapor. Investigation will utilize immunohistochemical techniques to assess phagocytic activity of microglia in the mPFC, motor cortex, dorsomedial striatum, and dorsolateral striatum. These brain regions are involved in corticostriatal circuits responsible for modulating goal-directed and habitual control over behavior, which are known to be dysregulated by chronic cannabis use. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We hypothesize that microglia-mediated synaptic remodeling in the mPFC plays a key role in THC-induced deficits to these circuits, particularly during adolescent brain development.

16Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyTullee StanfordStanfordAngeliqua Montoya, Christopher Dexheimer, Kyson Jensen, Joel Griffitts, Hanna Delgado, Stephanie PorterBiologyAngeliqua Montoya, Stephanie PorterMontoyaVancouver

Rhizobia bacteria provide half of all biologically fixed nitrogen to terrestrial soils through symbiosis with leguminous host plants. However, rhizobia live the majority of their lives in soil, so rhizobial adaptation to soil is ecologically and agriculturally important. Researchers previously found that Mesorhizobium gathered from toxic, heavy metal enriched serpentine soils have a gene cluster, the nickel island (NI), that confers tolerance to nickel, while strains from non-serpentine soils lack the NI. Several features of the NI are like those of other transmissible genomic islands, which suggests that bacteria may gain these genes through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). HGT can allow bacteria to quickly adapt to new environments by gaining large sets of adaptive genes from other bacteria. However, it’s also possible that the presence of the NI is a natural ancestral state, and strains from non-serpentine soils that lack the NI have lost these genes over time. To resolve this we ask, 1) Is the NI a transmissible genetic element? 2) Does acquisition of the NI confer nickel tolerance? Mesorhizobium strains with the NI were transformed with a plasmid containing selectable markers to track the NI. To test for transfer of the NI, three recipient strains that lack the NI were mated with two donor strains containing the marked NI, and selection plating was used to identify NI transfer. To test whether acquisition of the NI confers nickel tolerance, three recipients that gained the NI were subjected to a nickel tolerance assay. Wildtype strains that lack the NI and the donor were included in the assay to compare differences in nickel tolerance. The NI appears to be a transmissible genetic element. However, gain of the NI does not appear to impart nickel tolerance since we did not observe an increase in nickel tolerance within these strains. It’s possible that there needs to be compensatory mutations in the bacteria’s genes to allow the NI to function, as seen in other studies. However, we will continue to test more NI transfers and nickel tolerance traits to help understand how microbes evolve in response to stress in natural or anthropogenic soil contamination.

17Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyGrayson GiltnerGiltnerNiall Millar, Camille Wendlandt, Stephanie PorterBiologyNiall MillarMillarVancouver

Peas (Pisum) are nitrogen fixing plants, meaning they can collect nitrogen from the atmosphere and survive in soils that are typically poor in nitrogen. They fix nitrogen in root nodules, which house rhizobia, nitrogen fixing bacteria that dwell in soil. Both pea plants and the rhizobia benefit in this exchange in nutrients. Rhizobia vary in their ability to fix nitrogen, and in how much nitrogen they share with the host pea plant. When exposed to rhizobia with different fixing capabilities, pea plants can manage symbiosis by denying resources to less beneficial strains through sanctioning. To test whether crops and their wild relatives differ in the ability to manage symbiosis, we measured the sanctioning capabilities of 3 species: domesticated pea, Pisum sativum, and two wild species, Pisum fulvum and Pisum elatius.

We inoculated these plants with rhizobia with high or low nitrogen fixation capability and grew these symbioses in the greenhouse. We measured the concentration of rhizobia in nodules by crushing individual nodules and measuring the number of rhizobia colony forming units (CFU) that grew on agar media plates. By comparing number beneficial vs non-beneficial rhizobia colonies isolated from nodules, we can evaluate the degree to which the three pea species are able to deny resources to non-beneficial rhizobia. We find that despite higher overall bacterial density in wild pea nodules, all three species can effectively sanction against poor-quality rhizobia both in a single-strain and mixed-strain nodules.

18Social SciencesAudrey AlmeriaAlmeriaBrooke F. Beech, Maureen Schmitter-EdgecombeNeuroscience, PsychologyMaureen Schmitter-EdgecombeSchmitter-EdgecombePullman

Objective: Compensatory strategies (CS) can assist in supporting everyday memory and functional independence. Digital compensatory strategies (e.g., calendar and notes apps) are being used more by older adults, but their effectiveness compared to paper-based strategies has been questioned due to their novelty and potential suitability. This study examined whether digital and non-digital strategies vary in quality and lead to accuracy differences in carrying out a set of real-world prospective memory (PM) tasks.

Participants and Methods: Seventy community-dwelling older adults completed two testing sessions remotely from home via Zoom. Participants were presented four real-world PM tasks (packing for overnight trip, creating a physical activity summary, paying a bill by a due date, and calling the lab to leave a message) and were encouraged to use their typical CS to support task completion. The type and quality of CS, as well as accuracy of PM task completion, were assessed using lab-developed coding schemas. Quality scores were on a 0-3 point scale per task step (maximum total score = 63), and accuracy scores were on a 0-4 point scale (maximum score = 16). Participants were differentiated into two groups: those who used at least one digital CS (40 participants) and those who did not use digital CS (30 participants).

Results: The technology group utilized significantly more strategies than the non-technology group, and the technology group’s strategies were significantly higher quality than the non-technology groups. However, the technology and non-technology groups completed the four PM tasks with equivalent accuracy. Correlational analyses revealed that higher quality strategies were associated with better PM performance for both the technology and the non-technology group.

Conclusions: Digital compensatory strategies resulted in higher CS quality scores and more strategies used, but there was no significant difference in PM accuracy scores between digital and non-digital CS. Regardless of technology use, using high quality CS supported real-world PM performance. Interventions that focus on improving the quality of compensatory strategies being utilized by older adults may enhance everyday functioning.

19Applied SciencesAdriana ZaragozaZaragozaGiulia B.C. Leite, Marcos I. MarcondesAnimal SciencesMarcos Marcondes, Giulia LeiteMarcondesPullman

Dairy production revolves around the ability of a cow to produce milk and gestate. With heat detectors, dairy producers can identify when the animal is in estrus and effectively inseminate at the right time. We aimed to measure the impact of visual observation (VO), tail marking (TM), and electronic detector (ED) methods on reproductive parameters, culling rates and profitability of dairy farms. We simulated a 22-d period (reproductive cycle of a cow) and predicted their performance over 10 years using a Markov Chain model. The Solver (Microsoft Excel) could change the voluntary culling rate of 3+ lactations (min 10% and a max 40%) and heifers sold at birth to reach a stabilized herd and a maximum annual profit. The constraints were min 910 and a max of 1000 milking cows. Data from the last year was computed to compare the profit and reproduction indexes of the breeding detection methods (VO, TM, and ED) in two different environments, Washington (WA) and Florida (FL), to then simulate 6 scenarios. The ED was the more expensive approach in both FL ($17,643) and WA ($15,287) but had a higher estrus detection rate (EDR) and profit compared to VO and TM. Yet, cost of labor for reproduction when implementing VO methods tend to be higher in cost for WA ($5,421.53) and Fl ($6,181.83) as more hours and people are needed to watch the herd compared to TM and ED in both states.When evaluating involuntary culling, there was a higher one for VO and TM in WA, compared to FL. When comparing the culling rates with ED in WA (22%) and FL (23%), we see that they are culling fewer cows than other methods. Profit/cow increased with a higher quality heat detection method; in WA, the profit of ED was 7-18% greater compared to its counterparts VO and TM. In FL, ED had a 7-25% increase in profit than the other methods (VO and TM). Thus, implementing a more efficient heat detection method will raise the costs associated with reproduction; however, it will result in an upturn in reproductive parameters along with extra profit.

20Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyAngel DelgadoDelgadoHeather Koehler, Crystal LawsonMicrobiologyHeather KoehlerKoehlerPullman

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is virus that causes various life-threatening symptoms including rashes that develop into blisters or scabs and spread across the body (1). There are no approved treatments for people diagnosed with MPXV but vaccines are available to those who are considered at high risk of contracting the disease (1). The current outbreak combined with the limited treatment for diagnosed patients has pushed for a better understanding of the virus and its ability to evade innate immune defenses. MPXV belongs to the genus orthopoxvirus, which also includes Variola (smallpox) and Vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccine) (2). Being a part of the same Genus, most viruses share many features including their ability to escape host innate immune defenses using Z-RNA binding. The E3 protein is used evade defenses by binding to Z form nucleic acids (ZRNA) and preventing the host cell from activating a cell death pathway known as necroptosis. Based on previous work in our lab, when an orthopoxvirus lacks the E3 protein, the Z-RNA will be detected by a host innate immune protein known as ZBP1 (Z-DNA binding protein 1), triggering a cascade of antiviral mechanisms, and activating necroptosis. MPXV stands alone as the only currently known orthopoxvirus that lacks the Z-RNA binding portion of the E3 protein. MPXV is still capable of evading immune responses despite the lack of E3 Z-RNA binding, it is unknown how this mechanism still occurs. Using genetically modified cultured cells to control the expression of ZBP1, we can see the effects of MPXV using viral growth assays, immunoassays, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Completing these experiments will provide a deeper understanding of MPXV, and possibly provide therapeutic targets that inhibit this virus from evading host immune defenses.

21Arts and DesignHailey ParkisonParkisonInterior DesignAlana Pulay, Kristin PungPulayPullman

Our studio was tasked with taking an evidence-based design approach on three spaces within a brand new elementary school for Palouse Public Schools. Elementary schools provide formative experiences for young children, who spend the majority of their time at school. The quality of these educational facilities have a great impact on student health, wellbeing, and comfort, all of which are key to student success. Students who attend a poorly maintained facility have shown to perform as much as 17% lower than their peers in buildings that are appropriately lit, heated, equipped, and furnished. Additionally, there has been increasing awareness of the need for flexible learning spaces to accommodate all types of learners and levels of stimulus. We were asked to consider how our designs might have the greatest positive impact on the occupant experiences.

The chief objective was to create a comfortable sensory experience for any person that might use the spaces, particularly students who have undiagnosed sensory needs that are not being met by an IEP (Individual Education Plan), but still might affect their learning experience. As many as 15% of children have been diagnosed with some sort of sensory disorder, whether they are on or off the spectrum, have ADHD, or OCD, and the percentage of undiagnosed students struggling is likely much higher. Thus, it is important for the learning environment to be set up in a way that allows all students to be successful. A secondary objective was flexibility of the space for future users, while also maintaining the stability that children crave.

These goals were achieved through a biophilic design that mimics the colors, textures, and shapes of nature. Playful hues that encourage attentiveness and curiosity are placed to invoke engagement with the environment, while softened tones wash over mass to avoid visual overwhelm. Spaces are flexible to allow customized faculty usage, but fixed enough to provide stability for students who need it. Furniture is arranged democratically to encourage the most interaction, while also providing breakout spaces. This creates an egalitarian student experience, prepared for any situation.

22Engineering and Physical SciencesEva ArmArmGunnar Sly, Nisa Ulumuddin, Iradwikanari Waluyo, Volkan Cinar, Charles Sykes, Jean-Sabin McEwenChemical EngineeringJean-Sabin McEwenMcEwenPullman

To mitigate the generation of poisonous CO from the combustion of liquid fossil fuels, catalysts are employed to oxidize CO to CO2. Research has been done with single-site catalysts, where Pt is atomically dispersed on partially oxidized copper sheets and results in the preferential oxidation of CO. The use of single-site catalysts lowers the cost by decreasing the demand of precious metals. In a comparative study, the effect of atomically dispersed Rh sites was investigated as an alternative. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed and the thermodynamics and kinetics of CO oxidation using the Nudged Elastic Band Climbing Image method (CI-NEB) were analyzed. To make sure that it is worthwhile using Rh, less intense CI-NEB hydrogen dissociation calculations were performed to make sure Rh’s activity is similar to Pt’s. The hydrogen dissociation DFT calculations and Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AP-XPS) data reveal that the hydrogen dissociation activity on Rh single-site catalysts was increased compared to the Pt single-site catalysts. CO oxidation calculations on the Rh-doped surface reveals that this reaction is energetically favorable with small energy barriers to overcome when CO is initially physiosorbed. AP-XPS data shows that the reduction of the surface by CO was quicker with the Pt-doped surface than with the Rh-doped surface. From the CI-NEB calculations, if CO chemisorbs to the Rh suboxide-atoms, significant energy barriers would need to be overcome to become oxidized. These modeling results may help explain the AP-XPS data. Currently, more calculations are being performed with the Pt-doped surface to confirm that chemisorbed CO on Rh hinders its ability to oxidize CO. Ultimately, Rh single-site catalysts also provide a promising method for oxidizing CO.

23HumanitiesAlicia CallahanCallahanHistoryRaymond SunSunPullman

The Sixth Armored Division is a deeply respected World War Two American unit whose selected soldiers fought from D-Day until the liberation of the Buchenwald concentration camp. The Sixth Armored Division, nicknamed the "Super Sixth," was not just any unit. The men of the Super Sixth are liberators and are honored as such by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. In the course of my research regarding the 6th AD, I have come to know the men of the Super Sixth remarkably well as I closely studied their experiences and lives before, during, and after service. The Sixth Armored Division demands recognition for their performance and endurance exhibited in grueling trials throughout World War Two.

Prior to service, the familiar anecdote is that the men of the 6th AD struggled during childhood while working on the farm during the Great Depression. However, the men used the resourcefulness learned in such strife during service to survive the grueling campaigns.

The second segment of research follows the unit from training in the California desert to continuous combat from June 1944 to April 1945, taking the Super Sixth from D-Day to the Battle of the Bulge to Buchenwald. Simultaneously, two themes will be conveyed: growing skill/confidence and bonds among the soldiers versus attrition, exhaustion, and stress. The themes will culminate in the liberation of Buchenwald, the high point of the unit's history, as Holocaust liberators, and the worst experience of the war for the men who witnessed the results of Nazi racial genocidal policies. 

As the presentation completes, I follow the veterans in their postwar lives and examine the effects of their experiences and the memories they shared or repressed. A common theme amongst it all was that despite the physical injuries and mental anguish, the men of the Sixth Armored Division remained proud of their accomplishments in war. Much of the information to be presented is attributed to the dedicated family members of the Sixth Armored Division who have shared previously untold stories and unseen photographs, documents, and letters from wartime to provide a glimpse into the soldier’s lives.

24Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyTyrus ThomasThomasAnders OmslandMicrobiologyAnders OmslandOmslandPullman

Chlamydia trachomatis is a leading cause of preventable blindness (serovars A-C) and is the most prevalent venereal bacterial pathogen in the United States (serovars D-L). C. trachomatis is an obligate intracellular parasite that relies on invading mucosal epithelial cells for replication within a vacuole referred to as the chlamydial inclusion. While most free-living bacteria can generate all tricarboxylic acid TCA cycle intermediates to sustain metabolic activities, C.trachomatis lacks specific genes in the TCA cycle. The incomplete TCA cycle of C. trachomatis may reflect evolutionary adaptations in central metabolism with implications for the pathogenesis of C. trachomatis. A comparative sequence analysis of the glycolytic pathway and the TCA cycle of C. trachomatis and other species in the genus was conducted to identify differences between species. KEGG and NCBI were used to identify predicted proteins of glycolysis and the TCA cycle of Chlamydia species. Sequences for each protein were entered into Clustal Omega, a bioinformatic program that aligns multiple sequences. In glycolysis, sequences for each protein except for triosephosphate isomerase were highly conserved. Specifically, in C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci and C. pecorum, triosephosphate isomerase displayed gaps near the N-terminus. In comparison, the TCA cycle of all chlamydiae analyzed is severely truncated, and some predicted proteins show signs of ongoing gene degradation. The E2 component of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC of C. trachomatis, C. Suis, C. muridarum, C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae sequences displayed gaps near the C-terminus. In chlamydia, the E2 component of EC is encoded by two different gene sequences, sucB_1 and sucB_2.  During the chlamydial life cycle, infection is achieved by the elementary body (EB) while replication is specific to the reticulate body (RB), the latter of which appears around 8 hours post infection. Apparent differential expression of sucB_1 and sucB_2 may reflect that the genes are expressed by either the EB or RB form of Chlamydia. Sequence analysis of enzymes in the chlamydial glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle indicates the TCA cycle is undergoing continued degradation while the glycolytic pathway is maintained with fewer differences between species. Further analysis is required to verify the TCA cycle is degrading. 

25Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyAlina FilkowskiFilkowskiKemal Donlic, Stella Cao, Kiersten C. Holguin, Michael D. VarnumNeuroscienceMichael VarnumVarnumPullman

Melatonin signaling plays an important role in modulating retinal physiology and photoreceptor (PR) viability during early developmental stages. Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with maternal melatonin depletion and disrupted adolescent circadian rhythms, as observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Developmental ethanol (EtOH) exposure produces damaging effects on visual function and is associated with proteostasis dysfunction in a zebrafish model of FASD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the connection between ethanol damage, circadian periodicity, and potential melatonin rescue and melatonin receptor signaling (MT1/2R) for preserving proteostasis of PR neurons.

Zebrafish were exposed to partitioned treatments of 1% EtOH from 5-7 days post-fertilization during either the 12-hr light or dark periods and washed out in the opposite phase. Melatonin and/or the MT1/2R antagonist, luzindole, were applied as co-treatments. The functional effects were assessed by optomotor response (OMR) assays carried out at 2- and 3-days post-exposure. Cultured mouse photoreceptor-derived 661W cells were treated with EtOH with or without melatonin and/or luzindole co-treatments. 661W cells were assessed at 12-24hrs by RNA isolation for RT-qPCR, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) detected by DCHFA fluorescence levels, and cell proliferation determined by an MTT assay.

Exposure of larvae to 1% EtOH in-vivo during the light period showed significantly greater reduction in OMR performance compared to dark period exposure. Co-treatment with melatonin (10 µM) improved visual performance compared to EtOH alone. MT1/2R inhibition by luzindole (17 µM) did not affect melatonin rescue during light period exposure. Using RT-qPCR, a subset of genes related to heat-shock chaperones and autophagy showed altered expression by EtOH (50 mM) in-vitro. Downregulation of HSF2, IRE1a, and p62 was observed following melatonin (100 nM) and upregulated with luzindole (1 µM) co-treatment. Additionally, the accumulation of ROS following EtOH exposure in 661W cells was robustly reduced by melatonin; however, cell proliferation/viability showed no change compared to EtOH alone.

Together, these results demonstrate that diurnal variation in vulnerability to EtOH damage related to visual function and PR neurons is influenced by melatonin and may involve mechanisms associated with ROS scavenging and modulation of proteostasis under oxidative stress.

26Social SciencesEdwin GianiniGianiniJill McCluskey, Ron Mittelhammer, Michael John Gaffney, Mark Duggan, Danielle Amir-LobelEconomic SciencesJill McCluskey, Ron MittelhammerMcCluskeyPullman

In order to give current, as well as prospective student and family audiences a comprehensive, accurate, and reliable indication of the safety of the University said student is enrolling in, or enrolled at, we are developing a "Personal Campus Safety Score". This score is to be launched nationwide and will map University levels of violent crime as it compares to the resources devoted to safety, compared to student population, at the respective University. Insurance, criminology, health, law, policy, and economic science methodology is being incorporated into the building of this score and to provide early data on the background of the score, we launched a pilot survey. Students from across the Washington State University Pullman campus were polled on their thoughts on 12-campus-safety questions covering perceptions on institution safety. The questions parsed students by their identities, defined safety accessibility and indicated satisfaction levels of current WSU resources via Likert scales. (Add-In additional area of SURCA abstract on results of survey once completed)

27Applied SciencesAddison ThompsonThompsonBrenna K. Chargin, Hayden R. Wright, Ginny I. Park, Hannah E. Lapp, Ryan J. McLaughlinNeuroscienceRyan McLaughlinMcLaughlinPullman

As cannabis continues to become legalized for consumer use in more states, it is becoming increasingly important to characterize its effects on individuals, as many report using cannabis as an anxiolytic therapeutic. Post-partum disorders (PPDs) are the most common psychiatric complication women experience following childbirth, which is reported to affect 10-15% of women from industrialized societies and up to 40% of women in underdeveloped nations. Women are too often omitted in research and pregnant women are especially scarcely studied for ethical concerns of offspring wellbeing. Cannabis is cited as the most frequently used psychoactive drug during pregnancy with anywhere from 2-26% of pregnant women self-reporting cannabis use. The prevalence of cannabis use is increased for at-risk populations, including low-income women and those that have previously been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. These women are also at greater risk of developing PPDs following parturition. Additionally, untreated PPDs increase a woman’s risk for developing major depressive disorder (MDD) later on in life and these diseases, left untreated, can negatively impact maternal care behaviors and consequently offspring development. The effects of cannabis use during pregnancy on post-partum maternal health remain largely unknown; therefore, it is crucial for the medical field to better understand how these intersecting demographics are impacted by cannabis use to improve maternal and offspring health. In this ongoing translational study, female Long Evans rats are being trained to self-administer cannabis vapor two times daily in operant chambers for the full gestational period and will subsequently be assessed for behavioral and neurological changes following parturition to better characterize the effects of volitional cannabis use during pregnancy on the symptomology of PPDs. We expect that there will be an increase in PPD-like symptomology for the dams that self-administer THC, as compared to a VEH control group, measured by proxy via behavioral assessments which will be correlated to histological analyses of brain tissue post-mortem. We hope that this study will provide novel insights into the effects on cannabis use on an underrepresented population in medical research and help to elucidate unique potential risks that can be mitigated by healthcare providers and individuals alike.

28Arts and DesignLara HaddickHaddickInterior DesignAlana Pulay, Kristin PungPulayPullman

This project proposes a new elementary school for the Palouse Public School district. The small-town charm of Palouse and the breathtaking hills that surround the location are integrated throughout all aspects of the school’s design. This building not only acts as an elementary school during the week, but also serves as a community hub, an active learning environment, and a place to hold after-school assemblies and activities. Palouse Elementary School provides the community with multi-functional communal space while, above all, continuing to be a proficient and constructive educational facility.

The scope of this project, which is the administration office, the library/ media room, and the kindergarten classroom, is heavily influenced by evidence-based design. Proven scientific research is analyzed to optimize the physical, emotional, health, and safety factors that contribute to the student’s academic success. Every space ensures proper daylighting and connection to nature to benefit the occupant’s circadian rhythm. The theory of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is integrated throughout the facility to ensure that all the children’s needs are met (Nussbaumer.) The building’s versatile design adapts to new technological advancements to keep up with the times. Additionally, the specification of high-quality, durable, and stain-resistant materials prolongs the interior life of the building. Site integration, building versatility, interior longevity, academic success, and overall student well-being are the main goals that shaped the design of this educational building.


Linda L. Nussbaumer. (2014). Human Factors in the Built Environment, 2nd Edition. Fairchild Books

29Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesKaylie Green, Madelynn McelroyGreenNikolaos VoulgarakisBioengineering, Mathematics, Genetics and Cell BiologyNikolaos VoulgarakisVoulgarakisPullman

During early embryonic development, a fluid-like group of self-renewing pluripotent stem cells differentiates to create new specialized cells necessary for various functions of multicellular organisms. It is remarkable how such an evidently fragile cell mass with substantial cell-to-cell heterogeneity develops into a complex organism with exceptional precision. This differentiation process must be clearly robust to external perturbations and respond accurately and timely to environmental signaling. Interestingly, such properties also characterize physical systems operating in the vicinity of the critical point of a bifurcation or phase transition. This similarity has led scientists to embrace the hypothesis that stem cells maintain pluripotency by self-organizing to a critical state. In this work, we propose two-dimensional dynamical systems that describe the interplay between different cell states and intrinsic noise. Through linear stability analysis and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the system undergoes a series of spontaneous symmetry-breaking events that generate different cell types.

30Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesKendall LyonsLyonsSergey LapinBioengineering, Data AnalyticsSergey LapinLapinPullman

I, under the mentorship of Professor Sergey Lapin, am working to fully automate programming to analyze coronary blood flow using Doppler ultrasonography imaging. Doppler ultrasonography is a method of measuring blood flow velocities in retrobulbar vessels. Reduced blood flow in these vessels (specifically the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and short posterior ciliary arteries) have been strongly correlated in recent studies to the progression and onset of glaucoma. Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide, with over 3 million Americans affected. There is currently no cure for the disease, and though its progression can be stinted when caught early, over 50% of individuals suffering from Glaucoma are unaware due to the lack of early symptoms. Previous Washington State University studies have paved the way for this research, including “Waveform parameters of retrobulbar vessels in glaucoma patients with different demographics and disease severity”, a research article featured in the European Journal of Ophthalmology conducted in part with Dr. Lapin. This study analyzed patient demographics in addition to retrobulbar flow data, finding that wavelength parameters extracted from Doppler imagery were an effective way to test additional glaucoma risk factors (such as BMI, blood pressure status, and gender). In addition, a 2007 WSU study titled “Nearly automated analysis of coronary Doppler flow velocity from transthoracic ultrasound images: validation with manual tracings” was able to semi-automate the analysis of Doppler images. This algorithm was created to identify the waveform parameters, refine the image, and complete 8 basic mathematical functions to procure specific data points. Though an effective technique, there was some manual intervention required, as well as the need to perform additional tests with these data points. Automation of the process is important as it will allow for more effective further research into the uses of Doppler imaging in Ophthalmology. Within my research, I have completed steps towards fully-autonomous image processing through the use of python and data analytics procedures including edge detection.

31Engineering and Physical SciencesDomenica GachetGachetVikram Yadama, Somayeh Nassiri, Muhammad Khusairy Bin Bakri, Avishek Chanda, Manuel Raul Pelaez-SamaniegoCivil EngineeringVikram Yadama, Muhammad Khusairy Bin BakriYadamaPullman

In construction materials, cementitious grout is used as a filler or a sealant, whereas cement is its major mixing ingredient. Cement produces high CO2 emissions and is a major environmental problem. Therefore, introducing admixtures in the grout decreases CO2 emissions and improves its properties. One known grout admixture is cellulose ether, but it has a high market cost. Therefore, biochar is introduced as a potential partial replacement for cellulose ether due to its cheap process. Thus, this study investigates the properties of cementitious grout of cellulose ether, which has been partially or completely substituted by biochar. Four formulations were prepared by maintaining cement, silica sand, polymer powder, and distilled water at a constant. The formulation for “Sample 1,” the control sample, only contained cellulose ether. The formulation for “Sample 2” only had biochar, the formulation for Sample 3” contained 50% of cellulose ether and 50% mixed biochar produced at 300 and 500 °C, and the formulation for “Sample 4” had 50% cellulose ether and 50% of acidic biochar. Each formulation sample was subjected to different tests that analyzed its surface chemical composition (via FTIR), workability, compressive strength, elemental composition, morphological structure, thermal stability, and cement hydration. The results showed that “Sample 3” increases cement hydration, workability, and compressive strength by up to 85% compared to the control formulation. Therefore, this study concludes that the appropriate combination of biochar and cellulose ether improves the properties of cementitious grout.

32HumanitiesEloy TrujilloTrujilloEnglishDr. Vanessa CozzaCozzaPullman

This research focuses on the English Language Arts standards of the 50 United States with specific regard to rhetorical concepts and their equality, yet, will not consider any US districts or territories throughout its process. In order to achieve an accurate analysis, the states in question will have their standards examined and compared for any parallelisms, similarities, or divergences that might exist. At the time of this abstract, it is confirmed that 26 states have adopted the Common Core English Language Arts standards, while 24 other states have modified, revised, or abstained implementation of this standard and used one of their own. The methods of this research will consist of analyzing the standards for shared keywords and comparable intent of educational results. Keyword analysis will be based upon a sourced glossary of basic rhetorical terms, while ‘intent’ will allow for standards that assist rhetorical analysis or participation, but do not included an explicit rhetorical term. Completion of this comparative analysis will provide the foundation for next steps in determining the equity of these standards when held against the trends in contemporary civic and social discourse in future research. While 26/50 may sound like a by-definition-only majority, it is in reality 26 vs. 24 groups of 1, which establishes potential for vastly uneven learning outcomes across the country. What could these differences in English Language Arts standards today mean for our ability to engage our society’s issues in 10 – 15 years?

34Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyDeclan WestWestAlex Thompson, Henry Adams, DeAndre GarretForestryHenry AdamsAdamsPullman

For the past 300 million years, light has been the greatest limitation to plant growth and survival. Some have hypothesized that global change type drought will cause a transition from light-limited to water-limited growth. Water is required for cell expansion and division in growth, reductions in the water supply is known to limit cell turgor and thus directly limit growth. However, direct comparisons between light-limited and water-limited growth remain rare. Our study tested the hypothesis that drought would limit growth more strongly than light limitation. We exposed 60 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) saplings to a control, drought, shade, and shade + drought treatment (15 trees per treatment) for three weeks. We measured tree growth, photosynthesis, photochemistry, water potential, and sampled for leaf and twig NSC weekly, for 6 weeks, including 2 weeks post-treatment. We found significant declines in the photosynthetic capacity of shade trees, but not the drought trees. This is consistent with previous work showing that drought seldom effects the photosynthetic capacity of trees. Trees in the drought treatment grew less than shade trees, but closely followed the dynamics of shade + drought trees. Regardless, trees exposed only to drought recovered more rapidly after the treatment was removed. In contrast, trees in the shade and shade + drought treatment never recovered to their pre-experimental growth rates. Coupled with low photosynthesis and inhibited photosynthetic capacity, this suggests a direct correlation between carbon supply and growth. Although the recovery of light limited trees was inhibited by damage to the photosynthetic system, our results suggest that when drought is ongoing the decline in growth may be stronger than when trees are light limited. Finally, the rapid recovery of drought trees suggests high resilience of loblolly pine to drought-induced growth limitations.

35Social SciencesEstevan PenaPenaPolitical ScienceHillary MellingerMellingerPullman

How do formerly incarcerated individuals overcome housing challenges in Benton County and Franklin County? Has the COVID-19 pandemic affected these housing challenges? To answer these questions, I interviewed employees who assisted individuals with housing challenges. I used grounded theory and flexible coding to analyze the transcribed interviews. I identified four main themes: COVID-19, Housing Access, Former Incarceration Status, and Language Access.  Each of these four themes also had multiple sub-themes.  For example, the theme "COVID-19" included three sub-themes such as "early release from prison/jail", "financial hardships," and "eligibility for government aid."  Collectively, my four main themes and multiple sub-themes indicate that individuals may encounter housing insecurity in Franklin and Benton Counties, particularly following a period of incarceration and/or during a pandemic. These challenges are further compounded for Spanish-speaking individuals, who must navigate confusing, resource-scarce environments along with language barriers.  My findings are partially consistent with prior research, in that my studies (like prior studies) found that housing challenges often go hand-in-hand with other challenges, such as mental health concerns.  However, my findings are unique in that I focus on an understudied population: an agrarian community that has a significant population of individuals who identify as Hispanic and Spanish-speaking. This project was funded by WSU through the Frank & Margaret Jacquot Hachman Liberal Arts Undergraduate Academic Enrichment Fund Scholarship ($2,000 for Summer 2022) as part of an undergraduate opportunity to conduct research.

36Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyTaylor MooreMooreTaylor Moore, Kyrah Turner, Peter Awinda, Bertrand TannerBiochemistryBertrand TannerTannerPullman

The heart contains many proteins that function as one unit to create a coordinated contraction of cardiac muscle to pump out reoxygenated blood to the rest of the body. One protein, myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), is located near the neck region of myosin undergoes post-translational phosphorylation. RLC phosphorylation moves myosin heads closer in proximity to actin binding sites which increases the chance they will bind-thereby increasing the force and speed of contraction.

Most physiology and pathophysiology studies have used rodent models for heart function and disease, and historically, have used mostly males. More research needs to be done to show how cardiac function correlates to physiological sex differences between males and females. These potential subtle physiological differences between males and females prompted further investigation into RLC phosphorylation differences between male and female rats.

We hypothesized that there will be different levels RLC phosphorylation in different areas of the heart between males and females which could underlie differences in contractile function. To test this hypothesis, we harvested and homogenized cardiac tissue sections from different regions of the heart for male and female rats. Biochemical analysis will be performed to separate the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated populations of RLC. We will analyze digital images of the resulting immunoblots to determine percent RLC phosphorylation in the different samples.

Preliminary results in male rats indicate RLC phosphorylation varies in different regions of the heart, with the right ventricle (42.0 ± 3.19%) and the septum (37.4 ± 2.72%) having the highest level of phosphorylation the left ventricle (24.3 ± 1.28) and the endocardium (22.5 ± 3.09%) exhibited the lowest level of phosphorylation. It is anticipated that we will have subtle differences between male and female rats. These differences may underlie different contractile properties in different areas of the heart, which may vary by sex.

37Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyHannah PehaPehaShaun Clare, Robert BrueggemanAgricultural BiotechnologyRobert BrueggemanBrueggemanPullman

Spot form net blotch (SFNB) is an economically important barley disease caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. maculata (Ptm). Pyrenophora teres was recently found to also infect wheat representing a recent host jump, thus researching this pathosystem is critical to prevent future epidemics on both important cereal crops. Deploying effective genetic resistance requires genetic and molecular characterization of Ptm virulence. Genome wide association mapping (GWAS) is a powerful tool for identifying virulence and avirulence loci using natural plant-pathogenic fungal populations. We used genotypic and phenotypic data on a natural Ptm population to identify virulence/avirulence loci to identify candidate pathogen effectors in this relatively understudied pathosystem. Recently, a hybrid susceptibility locus designated Susceptibility to Pyrenophora teres 2 (Spt2) was mapped in two barley F2 populations. The Spt2 locus is unique in that both parents (CI5791, Tifang) are resistant to the isolate 13IM8.3; however, all F1 and approximately 50% of F2 progeny are highly susceptible. 103 Ptm isolates collected from Idaho, Montana, and North Dakota were sequenced using Restriction-site associated DNA genotyping-by-sequencing (RAD-GBS) to generate 4,836 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. GWAS was conducted utilizing this genotyping data and infection type data from each isolate on the parental lines and eight F2 seedlings. The Ptm isolates harboring the Spt2 virulence effector were predicted to display a 1:1 hybrid susceptibility phenotype on the F2 progeny. Preliminary GWAS results identified a marker trait association containing the potential Ptm Disease inducing effector 2 (PtmDie2) effector located between the markers Chr3_3816951 and Chr3_3827231 on Ptm chromosome 3. The peak marker Chr3_3821901 on chromosome 3 was identified with a LOD score of 8.28. This region of the genome contains four candidate genes all with hypothetical functions. In addition, based on association mapping on both parents, the candidate PtmDie2 locus was not identified on either parent. This supports the model that the PtmDie2 effector targets the Spt2 locus when in the heterozygous state. In addition, the currently delimited PtmDie2 locus has not been reported in the literature and would represent a novel effector locus.

38Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesSandra AutteletAutteletKevin Vixie, Jared Brannan, Katrina SabochickMathematics, Physics and AstronomyKevin VixieVixiePullman

The purpose of this research is to denoise images using approximation techniques. By computing the local minimum, the topology of a surface can be calculated using a smoothing technique. After decomposing the Flat Norm equation, a code was written to compute the functional result in two dimensions. This code uses a low-cost method by minimizing the graph cuts. This minimization maximizes the flow of the signal received, allowing for image recognition. The code for this project was written using Python. This code starts with a randomly generated graph and builds a distance matrix between each point. Using this distance matrix, a local neighborhood is generated. This neighborhood and distance matrix are then used to compute the weight of each edge between each point. These weights are calculated using a newton iteration technique. This process can be used to then calculate the gradient or smoothness of the image. 

39Engineering and Physical SciencesZoe FichtelFichtelRyan Dorosh, Ming LuoMechanical EngineeringMing LuoLuoPullman

Biological snakes exhibit high efficiency in achieving lateral undulation through anisotropic friction. However, most current robotic snakes rely on the friction between their wheels and clean, dry surfaces for movement, making them unsuitable for search and rescue missions with unpredictable terrain. Despite ongoing research on artificial snakeskin, the speed of these robots is still inadequate for the demands of search and rescue operations. This project aims to design and fabricate a novel soft robotic snake whose actuator can be bent horizontally and slightly vertically by a cable-driven approach. As a result, our novel soft robotic snake can be propelled with both undulation and concertina motions, aided by artificial snakeskin, allowing for easier movement in varied conditions.

40HumanitiesJulisa Hernandez-LunaHernandez-LunaStephany RunningHawk JohnsonElementary EducationStephany RunningHawk JohnsonJohnsonPullman

Often study-abroad is advertised with a colonial mindset, where students attend countries to explore its cultural resources. Without a partnership with the country students attend, the new knowledge or novel experiences will be through a lens crafted by the visitor. Previous research focusing on this colonization model found that study abroad programs create a scenario where students arrive with a tourist mentality and have little relationship with their host country. Without a partnership, students don’t learn from and with the country they visit, which creates a colonial relationship where in study abroad programs sole focus is on the experiences and feelings of visiting students.

The research project focuses on analyzing curriculums used in study abroad to examine how students, staff, and host countries are prepared for these programs, which will give us a better sense of what model is currently being used. Findings from this research could help improve curriculum and refocus study-abroad programs so that the needs of all parties are considered, which will be a positive step towards deconstructing the colonial mindset within this system.

The requirements of study-abroad programs being completed before graduation has seen an increase over time. Study-abroad programs partnering with the host community will serve not only the students but the country as well. With new experiences and knowledge will come responsibility and reciprocity toward the host country. By improving curriculums, the harmful ideology of colonization will no longer be a part of the study-abroad program.

41Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologySylvia XaivongXaivongBiologyAnjali Sharma, Anunay PulukuriSharmaPullman

Advanced prostate cancer is a second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) is a targeted site, expressed almost exclusively on prostate cancer that is used for clinical imaging and radio-ligand therapy. Due to limited specificity and improper drug targeting caused by many current chemotherapeutic drugs, targeted prodrug therapy for prostate cancer such as antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) and to a lesser extent small-molecule PSMA inhibitor drug conjugates (SMDCs) have offered alternative solutions. Although ADCs have shown to be the most efficacious, small molecules targeting ligands, or binding molecules, are preferred over antibodies or proteins especially for nanoparticle-based targeting because of several advantages such as easier synthesis and minimizes the inability of reactions to occur with bioactive ligands on the nanoparticles. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is another mechanism that reduces chemotherapeutic efficacy primarily through drug output. Commonly used chemotherapeutics, such as Paclitaxel (PTX), are actively pumped out of the tumor microenvironment leading to lower drug concentrations within the cell. Additionally, the low water solubility of many chemotherapeutics is a real problem, requiring other avenues for administration, ultimately at very low concentrations. In this work, PSMA-targeted dendrimers conjugated to chemotherapeutic drugs for targeted delivery within prostate cancer cells will be investigated for their efficacy in parent prostate cancer cell lines and MDR-derived prostate cancer cell lines. The multifunctional surface of the dendrimers also allows targeted delivery of combination therapies following cell absorption. PSMA-targeted dendrimers used are in the size range to permit plasma clearance in the kidney, thus avoiding toxicity in the rest of the body. The parent prostate cell lines utilized for this study are: PC3-PIP (PSMA +), which expresses human PSMA and PC3 (PSMA -) cell line that does not express any PSMA. These parent cancer cell lines have been induced with increasing concentrations of PTX to achieve MDR through modifications in gene expression. Overall, we anticipate our dendrimers will be capable of PSMA targeted drug delivery and reverse the MDR phenomenon.

42Engineering and Physical SciencesChristopher Heintz, Justin PilgrimHeintzKyle Yoshida, Ming LuoMechanical EngineeringMing LuoLuoPullman

The principle of robot design is to combine multiple joint motions, such as linear, orthogonal, rotational, twisting, and revolving joints, to create a system that can be used in a practical manner. However, due to single motion joints, current robots have many limitations in terms of safety and movement from potential damage from rigid links, shunting their adaptability and restricting its use cases. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an Active Fiber Reinforced Elastomeric Enclosures (AFREEs) that can achieve decoupled and controllable linear, twisting, and bending motions in a 3D workspace to reduce the cost and complexity of robot development. The AFREE is composed of a soft silicone actuator with embedded fibers at fixed angles along with an outer set of variable fibers controlled via servo gears. The device can be pressurized to achieve different motions depending on the outer fibers. This poster will demonstrate the static model to predict the fixed fiber length for operating the device with varying parameters which will be implemented into the controller and planner design in the future.

43Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyIsabelle BuschBuschSean Thompson, Iwona Driskell, Michael Phelps, Ryan DriskellBiologyRyan Driskell, Michael PhelpsDriskellPullman

Two classes of fish dominate Pacific Northwestern waters: Osteichthyes, bony fish, and Chondrichthyes, cartilaginous fish. There are obvious differences in the skeletal anatomy of cartilaginous and bony fish, but what about their skin? Compared to mammalian skin, fish skin is poorly understood, but understanding fish skin can advance human skin science, especially immune system research. By examining a representative species for each class – Atlantic spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) for Chondrichthyes and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for Osteichthyes – the similarities and differences between the skin and fins of these fish were revealed. Dogfish sharks and salmonids like trout are commonly studied species, since both have important conservation implications for PNW aquatic habitats. Wide swaths of these habitats are experiencing climate change-induced acidification, which may adversely impact the natural ranges and wild populations of these species.

Skin was sampled near the dorsal fin of each specimen. Clippings of pectoral, dorsal, and caudal fins were also collected. To provide a developmental context for the shark, three different ages were sampled: embryonic, juvenile, and adult. Different histological stains (H&E, Herovici, Alizarin red, and Alcian blue) marked various structures in the tissue, highlighting differences in scale density and dermal thickness.

Comparing the fins and skin of these fish revealed morphological relationships, as well as their adaptations to native environments. Data suggested salmonids will acclimate better than sharks to increasingly acidic habitats. Though S. acanthias and O. mykiss are some of the most researched fish species in current literature, histological data is not well documented. This research also provides a valuable histological library of tissue stains that are underrepresented, or even rarely applied, in current ichthyological literature.

44Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyKatie McCuneMcCuneJames H. Peters, Caitlin R. Ritchey, Rachel A. ArnoldNeuroscienceJames PetersPetersPullman

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gut derived peptide that is released during feeding and promotes satiation by activating vagal afferent neurons that innervate the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Many primary vagal afferent cell bodies, located in the left and right nodose ganglia (NG) of the vagus nerve, express CCK1 receptors (CCK1Rs) as well as the ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which has been suggested to be a mediator of CCK’s activation of vagal afferents. Importantly, the left and right vagal afferent nerve endings innervate different structures of the GI tract. However, physiological differences in CCK1R receptor expression and function between the left and right NG remain uncharacterized. These anatomical differences lead us to believe there are physiological differences between the left and right as well. Here we used ratiometric calcium imaging on isolated left and right NG cells to identify number of CCK responsive cells using a dose response and to determine vagal afferent fiber type using capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist.  We found that left NG cells had greater basal calcium levels, but right NG cells had greater calcium responses to CCK regardless of their fiber type and TRPV1+ cells had a greater response to capsaicin. We then performed NanoString nCounter analysis to calculate mRNA differences between the left and right NG but saw no differences in CCK1R mRNA levels between the two ganglia. Even though there was no mRNA difference, there could be differences in post-transcriptional regulation causing different levels of responses that can be further studied.  

45Social SciencesHannah MouradianMouradianMia Allred, Payton Freund, Anna Rodriguez, Brianna Carter, Shikha PrashadNeuroscienceLisa FournierFournierPullman

Precrastination, as opposed to procrastination, is the tendency to start a task (or task subgoal) as soon as possible even at the expense of extra physical effort.  Adults tend to precrastinate unless this choice leads to a cost in cognitive effort, suggesting that adults are biased to conserve cognitive vs. physical effort. Research also shows that young children can be sensitive to cognitive effort, but flexibility in cognitive control and application of proactive control may not yet be fully developed.  These latter processes may be critical to overriding behaviors that may unnecessarily expend cognitive effort.  The present study examined if young children, ages 4-6, tend to avoid precrastinating to conserve cognitive effort like adults, ages 18-28, or whether they have not yet reached this developmental milestone.  Children and adults were asked to pick up two cups filled with water in the order of their choice and carry them together, without spilling, back to a table at their start location.  Each cup was located on a stool, with the close cup located 12 feet and the far cup located 22 feet from the start location. Transporting the cups without spilling required both cognitive and physical effort, and this effort expenditure was greater when choosing to pick up the close (vs. far) cup first.  It was predicted that children, in contrast to adults, would tend to precrastinate (pick up the close cup first) if biases to conserve cognitive effort require inhibition and/or proactive control. Consistent with predictions, our results showed that precrastination was significantly dependent on age: children tended to pick up the close cup first (precrastinate) while young adults tended to pick up the far cup first (not precrastinate). This finding provides evidence that precrastination may be an automatic (or reactive) behavior, and it takes conscious effort (proactive control) to override this behavior which is an executive control process not fully developed in young children.

46Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyLiyon MehariMehariLindsey Grace MillerBiologyBose SantanuSantanuPullman

Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and can cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. Severe HPIV3 infection can cause serious cases of pneumonia and bronchitis in the lungs of infants and children. Although HPIV3 is the second leading cause of more than 40% of hospitalization in children, there are no vaccines or effective therapeutics to treat this virus. ISGylation is a post-translational modification whereby interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is conjugated to proteins through a series of enzymatic reactions. During infection with several viruses, ISGylation regulates cellular antiviral response. However, the role of ISGylation during HPIV3 infection is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether ISGylation could be induced by HPIV3. We detected ISGylation in human lung epithelial A549 cells infected with HPIV3. Additionally, we investigated the mechanism involved in HPIV3 mediated ISGylation. We focused our studies to examine whether HPIV3 proteins could act as viral factors contributing to HPIV3 induced ISGylation. Transfection of A549 cells with the HPIV3 C, N and F proteins revealed ISGylation induction by only the HPIV3 C protein. β-catenin signaling pathway is a key mechanism controlling various cellular functions. Therefore, we then investigated whether β-catenin pathway plays a role in HPIV3 induced ISGylation. For these studies, we infected A549 cells with HPIV3 in the presence of β-catenin pathway inhibitor iCRT14. We also transfected iCRT14 treated A549 cells with HPIV3 C protein. In both cases, inhibition of β-catenin pathway did not affect ISGylation induction by HPIV3 and HPIV3 C protein. In summary, our studies have demonstrated ISGylation induction in HPIV3 infected human lung epithelial cells via β-catenin independent mechanism. Additionally, we have identified HPIV3 C protein as a viral factor involved in ISGylation induction.

47Engineering and Physical SciencesWaddah Ammari, Thy NguyenAmmariAyumi Manawadu, Xianming ShiCivil EngineeringAyumi ManawaduManawaduPullman

Cement production associated with concrete construction accounts for about 7% of global CO2 emissions. Therefore, there is a need to identify sustainable substitutions for cement to reduce the carbon footprint of concrete. Biochar is an emerging promising alternative to achieve this objective.

Biochar is produced by subjecting biomass, such as agricultural and forestry waste, to thermomechanical conversions. Incorporating these waste products into biochar concrete instead of disposal reduces the release of CO2 and methane into the atmosphere. However, biochar properties significantly vary on the feedstock used to produce biochar, and there is still much to learn about how best to use biochar in concrete construction. Hence, this study aims to understand the best proportions of biochar to use in concrete without compromising strength and durability, the influence of different feedstock on concrete strength, and whether limewater pre-treatment of biochar could improve biochar concrete properties.

To this end, this study uses six types of commercially produced biochar as a substitute for 10% cement by mass in concrete mixes. Biochar is a coarse material; hence, it was first milled to a finer powder with a maximum particle size of 425 µm. Then, a portion of biochar was pre-treated with limewater to increase its capacity to capture more carbon from the atmosphere. After that, biochar concrete samples were cast, cured in water, and tested for compressive strength after 6 and 28 days. Control samples with 100% cement were also cast for comparison purposes.

The samples containing biochar produced from softwood, rice husk, and construction/demolition debris recorded compressive strengths within 13% of the control specimens. In addition, limewater pre-treatment increased the compressive strengths of wheat straw, wood shaving, and southern yellow pine biochar concrete samples by 3%, 21%, and 57%, respectively. However, more investigations are needed to evaluate the influence of existing calcium in limewater pre-treated biochar concrete on compressive strength gain.

In this ongoing research, we also intend to assess the freeze-thaw durability and further increase biochar proportions in concrete to reduce cement consumption. Nevertheless, current results indicate the potential of biochar as a sustainable substitution for cement in concrete construction.

48Arts and DesignSaira AllanAllanApparel, Merchandising, Design and TextilesManal ShaheenShaheenPullman

The Sanctus Dress is the final project for AMDT 312: Apparel Draping & Fitting. The design was inspired by a nun's garment called "nun's habit", manifesting as a black gown and white guimpe. The dress represents the juxtaposition between the innocence in the silhouette and the bold feature that exposes the leg.  Its highlighted aspect is inspired by gothic architecture such as stained-glass windows, asymmetry, and geometrical lines. The silhouette is inspired by the 1800s--well-known waistline-- the "empire" waist. The first process was designing the dress. Next, the draping method is used to construct and visualize the form. Lastly, sewing to complete the garment. Pleats and darts are made to create volume and shape the silhouette. The slit features asymmetrical characteristics found in gothic architecture. The front and back bodices have five tulle fabrics sewn together with the beadwork fabric on top to signify the stained-glass window. The waistline, below the bust, lengthens the figure without drawing attention to the waist.  Similarly, gothic architectures have grand heights. The pipping, which is sewn to the bodice, represents the edges of the stained-glass window called “came”(calms). The black skirt symbolizes gothic architecture walls and roofs are sewn together like a dome. The sleeves, which are inspired by the pointed arches, are stitched at the inner seams together with the strings and attached to the armholes. The slit is ruched to show one daring leg. The tulle fabric underneath the black gown represents the characteristics of glass.

50Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyGrace McLaughlinMcLaughlinGenetics and Cell BiologyEllie ArmstrongArmstrongPullman

Brown bears (Ursus arctos) have one of the largest distributions of carnivores on Earth, ranging across both North America and Eurasia. They now inhabit less than 1% of their previous North American range, primarily due to habitat loss and direct persecution by humans. Due to this substantial decrease in population size, brown bears in the Lower 48 were declared threatened by the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1975. Such rapid and intense declines in populations can lead to reduced gene flow and genetic diversity, which can be detrimental to population health over time.

Several studies have previously investigated the phylogeography of brown bears in North America using mtDNA. The mitochondria is an organelle within eukaryotic cells that contains its own unique circular DNA (mtDNA), separate from the nuclear genome. mtDNA is substantially smaller than the autosomal genome and is maternally inherited, which can provide insight into sex-biased gene flow and population structure of a species. Further, for some populations and species, the mtDNA can be diagnostic, helping to identify the source population or species identification of an individual. Since it is easily accessible and in large quantities in cells, it is particularly useful for species of conservation concern, where non-invasive sampling is ideal.

 In North American brown bears, previous studies have found that there appear to be four distinct genetic clades within North America. Clade I consists of bears from the southeastern Alaskan islands, clade II contains bears from Alaska’s mainland and Kodiak island. Clade III consists of bears from eastern Alaska and the northwestern territories of Canada, and lastly, Clade IV contains bears from southern Canada and the United States. However, these studies used a smaller sample size, encompassing less of the North American brown bear range, and only sequenced small sections of the mitochondrial genome. Here, I aim to discover if increasing the sample size and sampling localities, as well as the entirety of the mitochondrial genome will reveal additional genetic diversity and population structure compared to the previous studies.

51Applied SciencesShelbie WalkerWalkerEnvironmental and Ecosystem SciencesKevin MurphyMurphyPullman

Buckwheat provides an alternative to crops such as wheat, rice, or maize. Buckwheat has a more balanced amino acid profile of seed proteins. In addition, the growing of a crop like buckwheat requires less input. It can adapt quickly to its environment which makes it a valuable crop in hilly or mountainous regions. About twelve crops dominate the world’s food supplies while crops like rice, wheat, and maize make up 50% of the nutritional value globally. As climate change worsens the dependency on these crops becomes a problem. Therefore, other crops that have not been as researched or grown at a high capacity in recent history are needed to diversify the food market. Buckwheat provides an alternative to crops such as wheat, rice, or maize. Buckwheat has a more balanced amino acid profile of seed proteins. The focus of this project is seeing what range of colors and sizes we see in buckwheat grown in Skagit Valley, Washington.

52Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyEvelyn RoweRoweChasity E. Trammell, Alan G. GoodmanBasic Medical SciencesAlan Goodman, Chasity TrammellGoodmanPullman

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen with over 2,000 cases in the United States annually. Global warming has lengthened mosquito activity and geographical distribution which is directly correlated to increasing cases each year. While most people infected are asymptomatic, severe cases can range from chronic neurological damage and mortality. Due to limitations in available post-infection treatments, research investigating how hosts respond to and control WNV infection is needed to better respond to this global pathogen. Our lab has previously demonstrated that insulin-mediated induction of antiviral signaling is an important regulator of WNV immune responses. In this study we aim to further investigate insulin-mediated antiviral immunity to WNV using the Drosophila melanogaster. We use Drosophila as a model organism due to its readily targetable genome of conserved antiviral responses and ability to become infected with WNV within a BSL-2 setting. Through an initial RNA sequencing screen, we identify novel genes that have yet to be linked to host antiviral immunity. Genes CG43775, CG43776, CG43777 appear to be significant as mediators in WNV immunity. We demonstrate this through increased mortality and viral concentrations in flies that possess mutations in these genes compared to control flies. We further demonstrate through western blot that these genes regulate AKT phosphorylation, which is indicative of insulin-mediated signaling. Ultimately this study identifies new genes that are involved in insulin-mediated antiviral immunity and provides a basis for future investigation into identifying means to alleviate WNV disease activity and burden.

53Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesShira FeinbergFeinbergDevjeet Roy, Ziyi Zhang, Venera Arnaoudova, Sarah Fakhoury, Subashree VenkatasubramanianComputer ScienceVenera Arnaoudova, Devjeet Roy, Ziyi ZhangArnaoudovaPullman

Developers spend a significant amount of their time, ranging from 75-90%, on debugging code, but currently, there are limited tools available to help speed up this process. My research focuses on improving the efficiency of software debugging. To achieve this goal, I leverage my knowledge of both software engineering and cognitive neuroscience to better understand the cognitive process involved in debugging. Specifically, I use tools from neuroscience such as fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy) and eye tracking to observe participants while they perform daily software engineering tasks and gather data that will help us understand the process that they follow while trying to localize bugs in the software.

Our experiment focuses on understanding the reading behavior of software developers during bug localization. Participants were shown various parts of software (i.e., snippets) that elicited different reading behaviors based on prior research, while their eye movements and prefrontal cortex blood-flow were recorded. We manually analyzed the data to identify different types of strategies, including filtering or skipping parts of the code, reading direction, and engagement depth in a specific part of the code.

Simultaneously, we are developing a methodology to automatically identify reading strategies employed by developers during bug localization tasks, building on the insights gained from the manual analysis. This will help us understand the frequency and success rate of different strategies across various types of snippets and participants. Ultimately, our goal is to improve software debugging efficiency by providing developers with better tools and strategies.

54Arts and DesignConstance ChadwickChadwickInterior DesignAlana Pulay, Kristin PungPulayPullman

In elementary schools, children’s development should be the main objective, and I sought to create a design that would assist in this while designing a school for the city of Palouse, WA. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, there are 5 levels of needs: physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. These must be met in order, as for example, it would be nearly impossible for a child to learn if they were in pain, or felt unsafe. I interviewed school staff, toured recently constructed schools, and did research, including precedent studies, to design using an evidence-based process.

The design elements that further my agenda fall under three classifications: Concept, Staff Care, and Psychological Best Practices. For Concept, I wanted the school to seem familiar and comfortable, so I reviewed hundreds of photos of the Palouse and noted themes that stayed consistent. The concept that resulted tied together blue and golden-yellow, with the topography of the hills and fields. When a building fits comfortably within its location, the people will in turn be comfortable in it. As for Staff Care, by meeting staff's needs, they will better be able to meet students’ needs. I designed a breakroom and classroom that met the teacher’s interview requests and used thoughtful space planning for the administration areas. In interviews, I learned that librarians rarely use their office, so instead, I designed a desk area to meet their needs. Lastly, I included many Psychological Best Practices in my design. For one, daylight has been proven to have incredible psychological effects, such as students performing better on tests in classrooms with daylight, according to Daylighting in Schools, by Lisa Heschong. So, all of the classroom in my design is sun-lit. I also included a skylight above the librarian’s desk and was thoughtful of daylighting in the administration area. The blue and yellow color scheme has positive effects on children, according to The Impact of Color on Learning by Kathie Engelbrecht. Lastly, I included many options and accommodations to ensure learning is equal and accessible, no matter what differing abilities the students may have.

55Engineering and Physical SciencesErich WhitleyWhitleyAli Ahmad, Su HaChemical EngineeringAli AhmadAhmadPullman

My research project focuses on developing bimetallic catalysts for the decomposition of ammonium formate in order to produce hydrogen gas. This produced hydrogen gas has many uses in industry and has the potential as a renewable fuel source, but conventional methods of the decomposition of ammonium formate are dependent on expensive noble catalysts.  Bimetallic catalysts are a possible way to reduce the cost by partially replacing the noble metal with a secondary, less expensive metal. An ideal bimetallic catalyst would be one that offers similar or the same activity and selectivity as a pure noble metal catalyst, while substantially lowering the amount of noble metal used. So far, I have mostly looked at bimetallic catalysts consisting of silver and palladium at a sixteen-to-one molar ratio, on a carbon support. The performance of these catalysts is tested against pure palladium on carbon catalyst by measuring the carbon conversion in a flow reactor set-up. Initial results show that the 16:1 silver-palladium catalyst produces around 5% lower carbon conversion than the pure palladium, but further testing is required for conclusive results. My next steps are to test different combinations of metals and ratios to determine what compositions produce the most effective bimetallic catalysts for ammonium formate decomposition.

56Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyGrant IreyIreyGary Chastanger, Joseph HulbertEnvironmental and Ecosystem SciencesGary ChastangerChastangerPullman

Metastigmus as a group of small wasps, has been know to lay their eggs in seeds and have been found in imported seed sources. This problem has no current solution and causes the destruction of these imported seeds. Utilizing a process of heat treatment on these imported seeds to eradicate Megastigmus larvae, and by growing a combination of both heat treated and control (non-heat-treated), it will become clear whether or not heat-treatment reduces vigor (speed of germination) or vitality (health) of conifer seeds. The application of this knowledge is vast and can be widely used in the commercial industry of Christmas tree farming or nurseries seeking to grow conifers. Our results show that no matter the conifer species, the heat-treated seeds show a reduced vigor, but by the six-week mark, there is no significant difference in the percent germination. The only conifer that might pose a problem is the Nordmann fir, as there was a 10% total germination difference between heat-treated and the control. While another replication of this study must be done, our early findings show that heat-treatment reduces the speed at which germination occurs but is an effective eradicator of Megastigmus larvae and finally, creates no issue in the vitality (health) of the seeds.

57Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyBrook MacMacNancy Irlbeck, Holly Neibergs, Christian Posbergh, Jennifer Michal, Jennifer KiserAnimal SciencesNancy IrlbeckIrlbeckPullman

Many sheep breeds express the phenotype of moorit (brown wool) coloring. This coloring is sought after for niche markets. Moorit coloring is found in many heritage sheep breeds, and the color is associated with TYRP1 gene mutations. Previously, two mutations of the TYRP1 gene were found to be associated with moorit coloring in the Romeldale and Romney UK breeds. Other sheep breeds, such as the Finnsheep and Shetland breeds, contained only one of the two mutations. Wensleydale sheep are a rare wool breed also originating from the UK, that are highly sought for their fleeces. The last time a moorit Wensleydale was seen was in 1924. In 2013 the phenotype was expressed in a Wensleydale flock in northern Colorado, that was moved to the Pacific Northwest in 2017. The expression of the moorit phenotype was evaluated in this moorit flock in an attempt to delineate if the same TYRP1 mutations were responsible. Our hypothesis was that Wensleydale sheep harbor the same two mutations in TYRP1 as other UK sheep breeds.

Eighty nine Wensleydale sheep were bled (IACUC #7005). The resulting blood samples had DNA extracted, and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) performed to amplify specific portions of the DNA. Results showed only one mutation in the TYRP1 gene to be predictive of the moorit phenotype in these Wensleydales. 

The established lineage of the sampled Wensleydale flock was modeled in a pedigree chart with the genotypes for each animal depicted. This pedigree determined the mode of inheritance to be autosomal recessive, although variations in wool color for the heterozygous genotype is indicative of epistasis (where another gene affects another gene’s expression). Further research would be necessary to identify other genes responsible for variation in moorit coloring. This research identified a genotype predictive of the “true moorit” coloring and allows for sheep breeders to test for any moorit carriers within their Wensleydale flocks. 

58Research Proposal (Social Sciences)Sita GanugapatiGanugapatiPaul BollsPublic Relations, Risk and Crisis CommunicationPaul BollsBollsPullman

The goal for this research is to investigate the emotional and cognitive processes underlying parasocial relationship formation between Twitch platform influencers and their audiences. The research conducted for this year's project will inform a future Media Psychophysiology experiment. This experiment will be designed to advance understanding of biological processes underlying parasocial relationships. This research is grounded in the sociobiological theory known as costly signaling.

Costly signaling theory proposes that there are evolutionary based communication behaviors across species, which serve as relationship cues. This makes Costly signaling theory a useful framework for investigating processes that underlie parasocial relationships.  There is a rich body of literature on parasocial relationships, (Tukachinsky et.al 2020). Parasocial relationships have been conceptually defined as, "a unique relationship that refers to a feeling of intimacy and a sense of relationship that media users can continue experiencing outside the context of a particular media exposure instance.” (Tukachinsky et.all 2020). Twitch is a unique platform that allows its users to engage in communicative behaviors such as altruism. Altruism is a behavior that falls under Costly signaling theory concepts of indirect reciprocity, which is related to altruism.

Twitch also provides a platform “Just Chatting,” that provides a mediated form of interpersonal communication; therefore, Twitch is unique in that it provides technological affordances for parasocial relationship formation. This poster will include a summary literature review focusing on the popularity of Twitch on social media platforms, how Twitch theoretically relates to parasocial relationship formation, and Costly signaling theory. The poster will also include the initial results of content analysis of non-verbal communication behavior displayed by twitch influencers who vary in audience popularity. Initial research plans for the follow up experiment will also be presented.


Tukachinsky, R., Walter, N., & Saucier, C. J. (2021). Antecedents and effects of parasocial relationships: A meta-analysis. Journal of Communication70(6), 868-894. https://doi.org/10.1093/JOC/JQAA034

59Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyCaitlin OttawayOttawayCourtney Klappenbach, Sara Westbrook, Kristen DelevichNeuroscience, PsychologyKristen DelevichDelevichPullman

The use of inhibitory control, a process that allows us to suppress a predominant but inappropriate response, is applicable to multiple domains of life, including, decision making and impulse control. The maturation of this process occurs during adolescence, implicating it in disorders whose symptomatology or risk profiles change during adolescence, such as Tourette’s syndrome and substance misuse. Go/NoGo (GNG) tasks have been validated as a measure of inhibitory control in both human and animal models. Previous assessments of inhibitory control in animal models tends to use rat models, utilize testing chambers that are outside the home cage, and take around 6 to 8 weeks to train and collect data. To assess inhibitory control in adolescent mice, training must occur between P23 (postnatal day 23) to P50 (postnatal day 50), a time period of just 27 days. We sought to determine whether we could train mice on an adapted GNG task within this time frame by using a feeding experimentation device (FED) in-home cage pellet dispenser to deliver sucrose pellets as a reward. Four training stages with gradually increasing difficulty were implemented to train mice in the GNG task, in which mice must respond to one of two different stimuli, a ‘go’ signal or a ‘no go’ signal. The go signal consists of a light in the nose port that indicates the mouse should poke to receive a pellet. In contrast, the no go signal is a simultaneous tone that indicates that the mouse must refrain from poking the device to receive a pellet. Based on previous literature and analysis of our own training data, we introduced a variety of changes to the training protocol to improve task performance, yet mice were unable to learn this version of the GNG task within the necessary time frame. Using what we have learned from the GNG task, we are currently piloting a different inhibitory control task, the Stop Signal Task. Preliminary results indicate that mice can learn this task much faster, suggesting that it will enable future research on the adolescent maturation of inhibitory control.

60Engineering and Physical SciencesJohn BusseyBusseyBenjamin Dutton, Kevin Grogan, Brooke Downing, Marc Weber, John McCloyMaterials Science and EngineeringJohn McCloyMcCloyPullman

Gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) is an ultrawide bandgap semiconductor material with applications in high powered electronics, sensors, and optoelectronic devices. During Czochralski crystal growth of β-Ga2O3, volatilization of components is a critical concern when attempting to control dopant composition and crystal quality. Liquid encapsulation (LEC) with B2O3 (a layer of molten B2O3 over the Ga2O3 melt) is a potential solution. One concern with LEC is that interactions between Ga2O3 and B2O3 are poorly understood, and B2O3 could potentially contaminate the Ga2O3 melt. This study examines the Ga2O3-B2O3 binary series of quenched glasses and a heat-treated glass ceramic to illuminate the relationship of Ga2O3 and B2O3 in a melt. X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical and X-ray microscopy, thermal analysis, and other characterization techniques are utilized to understand the resulting glass structures, including phase separation and crystallization. Crystal structures and formation processes are discussed. As such, this study informs the viability of LEC of β-Ga2O3.

61Applied SciencesKelsi McCrackenMcCrackenChemistryLiane MoreauMoreauPullman

Atomic-scale mixing in bimetallic noble metal nanoparticles has been demonstrated to affect their optical properties and catalytic performance for enhanced energy applications. Platinum is a strong catalytic agent, and engineering a system wherein platinum can be reduced by a weak reducing agent and at room temperature could be valuable to minimize the energetic footprint for systems that utilize platinum. Co-reduction with Au could be a facile modality to incorporate Pt due to its lower reducing potential and miscibility with Pt. In the synthesis of PtAu nanoparticles, aqueous metal solutions of gold and platinum in ratios varying from 0% to 100% gold are combined in a 20 mL reaction vial. The metal solutions are reduced utilizing ascorbic acid, in a 10:1 metal to reductant volume ratio. These have been analyzed using UV/Vis and TEM images, in order to interrogate platinum incorporation and to verify nanoparticle formation and particle morphology, respectively.  In the 0.5 mM solution, the 90% Au to 10% Pt shows a wide peak at 610 nm whereas the 50% AuPt ratio spikes in the UV range. This suggests that a difference in Pt incorporation is observed within these particles. Preliminary TEM images show larger non-descript particles. If this system shows successful co-reduction of platinum, this method can be extended to other potential bimetallic catalyst candidates. 

62Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyAllie PrattPrattAdam Becker, Ben Vernasco, Heather WattsZoologyHeather Watts, Adam BeckerWattsPullman

Wildfires are increasing in size and frequency across the western United States, and though wildfires can have drastic effects locally, the hazardous smoke can also reduce atmospheric air quality at larger, regional scales. These large-scale increases of wildfire smoke in the atmosphere have caused concern for how it may adversely affect birds and other wildlife. To better understand the impacts of wildfire smoke on birds, this study examined the impact of smoke on feather growth. This is particularly important because many birds in the western U.S replace their feathers (i.e., molt) in the late summer or early fall, when wildfires often occur. This study focused on wild-caught- red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra), a bird found in conifer forests of the western US, that were housed in outdoor aviaries. We compared feathers grown by birds when they were exposed to naturally occurring wildfire smoke, and during a smoke-free period. For 15 birds, we collected one tail feather during a smoke-free period and two other tail feathers whose growth overlapped with periods of smoke. For each feather we measured length and, mass as these are established indicators of feather quality. Preliminary results suggest that there was no difference in the length or mass of feathers grown under smoke or smoke-free conditions. Feather growth reflects just one aspect of physiology, morphology and behavior that could be impacted by wildfire smoke Therefore, more research will be needed to develop a broader understanding of the impacts of wildfire smoke on birds.

63Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyTy Gray, Samantha Shippell StilesGrayNadia McLean, Chloe Erikson, David RossiNeuroscienceDavid RossiRossiPullman

Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is the most prevalent substance use disorder in the U.S., costing $250 billion annually and affecting over 15 million people. One central component of AUD is alcohol withdrawal. Aversive withdrawal symptoms reinforce the renewed drive to consume alcohol in order to alleviate withdrawal severity, highlighting the importance of withdrawal as a critical time to intervene in the addiction cycle. While acute alcohol use temporarily disrupts neurotransmission, chronic alcohol use causes significant neurological adaptations. More specifically, in the cerebellum, a structure known for its role in fine-tuning motor coordination, acute alcohol increases cerebellar granule cell inhibition. However, chronic alcohol use causes a decrease in granule cell inhibition as a neuroadaptation that becomes apparent during withdrawal in conjunction with the onset of physical withdrawal symptoms such as motor incoordination and tremors. In addition to self-medication with alcohol, nicotine can also alleviate adverse symptoms, which may be due to their similar effects on cerebellar neurotransmission and explain why the two drugs are often co-abused. However, nicotine is a high-risk alternative, emphasizing the need to identify a safer compound that can reduce withdrawal severity and replace nicotine or continued alcohol use. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-addictive and non-psychoactive cannabis-derived substance, similarly increases cerebellar granule cell inhibition and has shown promise in reducing withdrawal severity. Therefore, CBD may be a safer alternative for treating withdrawal symptoms. However, it is currently unclear whether CBD effectively reduces alcohol consumption during chronic alcohol withdrawal which is the goal of this study. Utilizing our novel method of alcohol dependency, C57BL6/N mice undergo passive alcohol vapor exposure for 72 hours while using air vapor as our control, after which the mice are removed and go into withdrawal. Then, mice voluntarily consume alcohol in a two-bottle choice paradigm where mice are given free access to two bottles (water and 10% EtOH+Sucrose). We hypothesize that mice will consume more alcohol in withdrawal compared to air controls and that introducing CBD during withdrawal will reduce voluntary alcohol consumption by minimizing withdrawal symptoms in alcohol-dependent mice, thus serving as a potential therapeutic option for individuals with AUD.

64Engineering and Physical SciencesHunter GedickeGedickePhysics and AstronomyBrian CollinsCollinsPullman

Examining the electron and hole mobility of the two organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) F8BT and PFO, by creating electron mobility devices (EMD) and hole mobility devices (HMD). The devices would then run a voltage through them, hoping to find a quadratic JV (current density vs voltage) graph. Which could then be fit to the Mott-Gurney law that describes a non-linear JV graph. No success for the EMD’s, no device tested showed the behavior expected. There was more success with HMD’s after modifying the devices. It was found that the way JV curves were analyzed gave different results depending on the way we graphed the curves. After testing which analysis method works the best, between fitting the Mott-Gurney law to a curve, setting my data vs v2 and then fitting a line to it, or plotting the data on a logarithmic scale and extracting numbers from there. It was found that fitting the Mott-Gurney law is too variable and gives far differing numbers. Plotting vs v2 gives results that stay in the same small range for every device and variation, and while log log plots are promising there was a lack enough successful devices to get a statistically significant number.

66Applied SciencesAndrew BartelheimerBartelheimerAmanda Moelemberg Cezar, Icaro Rainier Rodrigues Castro, Luiza Nazare Carneiro Silva, Adriana Zaragoza, Valerie Annabelle Achziger, Giulia Berzoini Costa Leite, Isabela Fonseca CarrariAnimal SciencesMarcos MarcondesMarcondesPullman

Triticale is a grass hybrid of wheat and rye, exhibiting high yields and increased stress tolerance. These traits make it useful as a cover crop to prevent soil erosion, increase soil organic matter, or be used in areas with little or no supplemental irrigation. Despite the high utility of this grass species, triticale silage is not used widely in the dairy industry. Corn silage is the predominant forage used in dairy cattle feed rations, but growing corn has several drawbacks. By implementing a crop rotation including triticale, soil erosion after corn harvest can be reduced by covering the soil during the winter. Therefore, the study aimed to compare the digestibility of corn silage and triticale silage in an artificial rumen to aid dairy producers in including triticale silage in dairy rations. The hypothesis was that an increase in the proportion of triticale silage would generate no difference compared to a diet with corn silage as the only forage when the diets were adjusted to account for differences in starch composition of the forages. Rumen fluid and solids were collected from two animals, strained through 4 layers of cheesecloth, and then placed into an artificial rumen system (Rusitec). Four diets were formulated with different replacement levels of corn silage with triticale silage (0, 33, 66, and 100%), placed into nylon bags, and added to the artificial rumen. The diet in the bags was changed after 48 hours of fermentation. The artificial rumen constantly provided artificial saliva and regularly mixed the contents to simulate ruminations. Gas production, pH, dry matter digestibility, and effluents were measured daily. The replacement of corn silage by triticale silage in diets for high-producing lactating cows did not change rumen pH, gas production, or digestibility (P>0.05), which are indicators of energy available in the rumen. These results indicate that corn silage can be partially or completely replaced by triticale silage in a dairy cow ration, given that all total nutrient levels, especially starch, are kept unchanged across the diets.

67Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyKylee LenkersdorferLenkersdorferCourtney Klappenbach, Qing Wang, Jason “Jayes” Acuña, Alexis M. Daniels, Kristen DelevichBioengineeringKristen DelevichDelevichPullman

A major feature of adolescent development is increased cognitive function and social awareness that is believed to be due to the maturation of brain areas such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A hypothesized driver of adolescent mPFC maturation is dendritic spine pruning, a dynamic process in which synaptic connections along the dendrite are eliminated. There is currently a lack of knowledge as to whether neuronal cell types in mPFC exhibit distinct patterns of dendritic spine pruning during adolescence. In the Delevich Lab, we are examining spine pruning on two major classes of excitatory pyramidal neurons within the mPFC, termed Intra-telencephalic (IT) and Extra-telencephalic (ET) cells. Contrary to previous experiments, we are studying cell type-specific spine pruning within the same brain to enable direct comparison between IT and ET cells. To label these cells, we delivered retrograde AAV encoding florescent marker proteins to the projection targets of IT and ET cells, the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and pons, respectively, at three timepoints (juvenile, adolescent, and young adult) in male and female mice. The aim of this project was to 1) determine the spatial distribution of DMS- and pons- projecting cells within the mPFC and 2) determine if there were differences in spine density and morphology on IT and ET cells across adolescence between males and females. A widefield microscope with structured illumination was used to image the distribution of the cells and a confocal microscope was used to capture images for spine density and morphology quantification. Our data indicate that there are differences in laminar localization between the two cell types, with DMS-projecting IT and pons-projecting ET cells rarely overlapping and ET cells located in deeper cortical layers than IT cells. We hypothesize that there will be differences in spine pruning on IT-type versus ET-type neurons with preliminary data showing that IT cells have higher spine density than ET cells. Further analysis will examine the difference in density across sex and ages. In future experiments we will investigate the role of microglia to determine if these immune cells underlie differential spine pruning on ET and IT cells during adolescence.

68Research Proposal (Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary Biology)Skyler AllisonAllisonKevin MurphyOrganic and Sustainable AgricultureKevin MurphyMurphyPullman

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an annual plant in the Amaranthaceae family that has been popularized for its nutrient-rich seeds, which can be a complete protein containing all nine essential amino acids. However, not all varieties of quinoa are complete proteins and the amino acid profiles can vary per harvest. Previous research has proposed multiple factors could be responsible for these inconsistencies, including nitrogen and soil health. Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient essential for plant growth and development; plants use N to create sugars during photosynthesis and formulate amino acids. However, soil factors heavily influence availability and not all forms of N are available to plants. Plants can only absorb nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) and these forms of N become less available at a more basic soil pH. To examine the effects of N applications on quinoa, we will test three commonly used organic N fertilizers: blood meal, feather meal, and a blended fertilizer at three application ratios on Washington adapted quinoa varieties. We aim to find optimal levels of organic fertilizer application to positively affect quinoas amino acid profiles. To isolate the effects of these fertilizers, all plants will be grown in a sterile greenhouse environment using bagged soil. Soil pH and nutrient analysis will be accounted for before planting and after the harvest to account for the availability of N throughout the experiment. After harvest shoot and root weight will be taken in addition to a nutrient analysis of each plot's seeds. This research will allow us to better understand the influence that N has on devolving complete proteins within quinoa to improve the nutrition of future varieties.

69Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyCharlotte KomminiKomminiJasson Makkar, Iwona Driskell, Ryan DriskellGenetics and Cell BiologyRyan Driskell, Iwona DriskellDriskellPullman

The orientation of collagen fibers in the skin creates tension lines that are thought to affect wound healing after injury or surgery. Langer’s lines map the directionality of tension lines in human skin. It has been hypothesized that wounds lying parallel to skin tension lines result in less scarring compared to wounds of other orientations. However, there are currently no animal models to explore the relationship between collagen fiber orientation and incision wound healing. To address this, we have developed a murine model to mimic different scar types by creating full thickness dorsal incisional wounds of various orientations relative to the spine in wild type organisms. Images were captured to evaluate the healing process over time across different experimental groups, with an emphasis on identifying the time to scab formation and falling. Tissue was collected, stained, and imaged to determine collagen fiber orientation as well as area, width, and quality of the resulting scars. Data analysis is ongoing but is pointing to improvements in closure for wounds oriented diagonally to the spine. We will continue to compare data between experimental groups to determine the role of incision orientation in wound closure. Significant results may help to confirm the importance of skin tension as a variable in wound healing. Understanding incisional wound healing is crucial in identifying interventions for long term aesthetic and functional improvement at surgical site.

70Social SciencesOlivia SciumbatoSciumbatoDavid MakinCriminal Justice and Criminology, PsychologyDavid MakinMakinPullman

This paper examines the role of policing and how current methods could be improved through the optimization of empathy. At this time, policing is a topic that is under scrutiny from society, policy-makers, and the media with groups searching for ways to improve current police training tactics to ameliorate interactions with civilians during crisis intervention. This study is also researching potential methods to teach people how to optimize empathetic abilities and finding which training methods and teaching interventions are optimal towards improving this skill.

Incorporating evidence from literary reviews and data collected from the Social Interactions Lab at Washington State University and ran through the Criminal Justice Department, this study demonstrates the policing can be improved through the utilization and optimization of empathy. It argues that finding the baseline of current empathy utilization can promote the creation of new teaching methods that optimize empathy and therefore help improve policing. 

Keywords: police, empathy, teaching, community, crisis context

71Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyTommy Duong, Sam KindlDuongSam KindlElectrical Engineering, Genetics and Cell BiologyRyan DriskellDriskellPullman

Advancements in next generation sequencing technology have led to an exponential increase in the amount of genetic data available for analysis. Analysis of genomic data requires a level of proficiency in coding and utilizing languages such as R and python. Webtools that host preprocessed data through generalized searchers make this data more accessible and does not require coding skills. Our hypothesis is that a novel webtool that uses a binary search tree (BST) for scRNA-seq data will enable new biological discoveries with large genomic datasets. To test this hypothesis, we created a webtool that utilizes a BST that resides completely in JavaScript within the web resource skinregeneration.org. The webtool that we designed is an interface that supports user controlled selections of pre-calculated genomic datasets by pull down menus. The pull down menus can be expanded infinitely to perform a cross-experimental analysis from many datasets that are limited only to screen size and the user's imagination. We tested the efficiency of this webtool by creating an internal function that measures the time from search to display. When comparing the results to a similar webtool that uses cloud computation, our webtool displays information in 0.5 to 2 milliseconds while computational based websites take around 6-8 seconds to display the same information. By using the webtools, we are discovering more from the genomic data by cross comparing datasets from different publications.

72Engineering and Physical SciencesNicolas RijhwaniRijhwaniAnthony Savoy, Vannessa Caballero Perez, Junrui Li, Yong WangChemical EngineeringAnthony SavoySavoyPullman

Catalysts are a ubiquitous aspect of industrial fuel and chemical production since they lower the energy barrier required for chemical reactions to take place, thus accelerating the reaction rate. Catalyst development is more urgent than ever due to soaring energy demand coupled with a demand to develop efficient methods for producing renewable liquid fuels and chemicals.  Upgrading of renewable raw material to sustainable chemicals and fuels can be done by cross-coupling carbon-carbon bonds between bio-derived molecules. One such molecule that is of increasing interest is isobutene, which can be used as a precursor for a variety of applications, including rubber manufacturing, plastics, and fuels. Transition metal oxides are typically used to catalyze this reaction; however, the level of understanding for the sites of reaction and step by step reaction sequences varies widely due to the heterogeneous nature between each catalytic surface. Cerium oxide (ceria, CeO2) is well-known for its high oxygen storage capacity, excellent ability to transfer electrons during catalysis, and rich acid-base properties. Because of its efficacy in a variety of reactions ceria nanoparticles have been studied to better understand its fundamental properties. These nanoparticles can be prepared to expose specific morphologies (e.g. octahedra, cubes, rods, etc.). Herein, the effect of the ceria nanoparticle shape was studied during isobutene formation from acetone carbon-carbon coupling. Through chemical synthesis, ceria nanocrystals with octahedral, cubic, and rod-like shapes were obtained. The formation of isobutene was found to be most favored on the cube-shaped nanocrystals. The acid-base properties of each ceria nanocrystal were characterized using spectroscopic methods by observing how acetone adsorbed and reacted on surface of the nanocrystals. This was combined with surface reaction studies over a controlled range of temperature to highlight the contributions of surface planes and oxygen vacancies to the acetone to isobutene mechanism. The order of selectivity to isobutene favors the cubes nanocrystal most likely due to the more basic nature of the nanoshape compared to the other two morphologies studied, with hydroxyl groups on the surface likely being the driving force behind isobutene formation.

73Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyAlexandra BrownBrownHeather Watts, Ben VernascoZoologyBen Vernasco, Heather WattsVernascoPullman

Haemoproteus is a blood parasite that infects a wide variety of birds. The prevalence and intensity of infection can vary across many factors such as season, age, and sex of the bird. The causes behind this variation are not well understood, nor the consequences to the infected birds. Variation in infection has been well documented in free-living crossbills (Loxia spp.), a group of songbirds that has been used as a model for research in this area. In this study, we looked at Haemoproteus infection in adult captive wild-caught red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra). We looked at infection status and intensity varied with sex and age to gain insight into the causes of variation in infection. Blood samples were collected from 37 birds from April 28th through May 11th. A drop of blood was used to create a blood smear while the remaining blood was used to measure hematocrit (percent volume of red blood cells in whole blood). Blood smears were fixed and stained using Protocol Hema 3. Slides were examined for Haemoproteus spp. infection under 1000x magnification with immersion oil. Infection status (presence/absence) and infection intensity (number of infected erythrocytes) were determined based on examining 10000 erythrocytes (red blood cells) per slide. Overall, 68% of birds were infected. We found no significant effect of age (birds 1-2 years old versus >2 years old) on infection status or intensity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that low rates of infection in juvenile birds observed in previous studies are driven by time lags in inoculation after hatching, rather than being driven by more general age-related differences. We also found no effect of sex on infection status, but among infected birds, males had higher infection intensities than females. Because birds in our study were in captivity, this finding is most consistent with the hypothesis that sex differences in infection are driven by sex-specific differences in physiology rather than differences in exposure resulting from sex-specific behavioral patterns. Finally, we found no relationship between infection status or intensity and hematocrit level, suggesting that reduced hematocrit is not a cost of infection in this species.

75Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyBrayan OseguedaOseguedaNickolas C. Starks, Garry E. Smith, Alla S. KostyukovaBioengineeringAlla KostyukovaKostyukovaPullman

Within sarcomeres, the most basic unit of muscles, thin and thick filaments slide against one another to contract the muscle. Actin and tropomyosin compose the main structure of the thin filament while two homologous proteins, leiomodin and tropomodulin, compete for binding sites at the pointed end of the filament. Leiomodin forms a leaky cap that allows for the elongation of thin filament proteins while tropomodulin prevents the lengthening of the filament. This modulation of the filament is vital to the function of the muscle as any significant deviation from uniformity within cardiac muscles can result in cardiomyopathy. Within our research, our objective is to understand binding behaviors between leiomodin and tropomyosin in order to better form a model of thin filament length regulation. Specifically, we hypothesized that the regulation of thin filament length is based primarily on the differences in affinities of the two homologous proteins for tropomyosin. To test this, we engineered and introduced point mutations into a peptide fragment of the cardiac leiomodin isoform representing its tropomyosin binding site (Lmod2s1) and analyzed structural changes in complex with tropomyosin through circular dichroism and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that Lmod2s1 peptide fragments with point mutations such as Lmod2s1 E34Q, E36V, S24K, and the double mutant S24KE36V provided a gradient of affinities that, in conjunction with prior studies and future studies into length of filaments versus affinity of leiomodin, will allow us to test if our hypothesis is indeed true.

76Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesSejal WelankarWelankarPaola Pesantez-Cabrera, Bala Krishnamoorthy, Lynn Mills, Markus Keller, Ananth KalyanaramanComputer ScienceAnanth Kalyanaraman, Paola Pesantez-Cabrera, Bala KrishnamoorthyKalyanaramanPullman

Persistent homology is a branch of computational algebraic geometry topology that studies shapes and extracts features over multiple scales. We present an unsupervised approach that uses persistent homology to study divergent behavior in agricultural point cloud data. More specifically, we build persistence diagrams from multidimensional point clouds, and use those diagrams as the basis to compare and contrast different subgroups of the population. We apply the framework to study the cold hardiness behavior of 5 leading grape cultivars, with real data from over 20 growing seasons. Our results demonstrate that persistent homology is able to effectively elucidate divergent behavior among the different cultivars; identify cultivars that exhibit variable behavior across seasons; and identify seasonal correlations.

77Applied SciencesShauna FloresFloresAgricultural BiotechnologyCameron PeacePeacePullman

The Palouse Wild Cider apple breeding program, PWCabp, seeks to develop superior cider cultivars and would benefit from optimized techniques for pollinating apple trees. Within PWCabp, this information would be useful to increase crossing success, as well as for any breeding program as few pollination technique studies have been reported. The null hypothesis in the study within the ongoing breeding program was that the standard protocol (morning, flowers at stages 4-5) with an experienced person would be the most successful. 33 apple trees growing at Tukey Research Orchard (TRO) were used. During the 2022 apple flowering season, May-June, several factors were recorded: time of day, mother and father identities, mother and father genetic groups, developmental stage and canopy position of flower, aspect of canopy, number of flowers per cluster, pollination tool, the person emasculating and pollinating, rain events, and re-pollination after rain events. Each pollinated and labeled branch of 1-100+ flowers represented a pollination treatment, consisting of certain recorded levels of factors. These levels among treatments were randomized as much as possible, although restricted by desire for ongoing genetic improvement in PWCabp. Numbers of fruitlets setting per experimental treatment were recorded July 9-12th. Effects of each factor and interactions among multiple factors were analyzed via Analysis of Variance. Pollination success was compared to a baseline of one fruit per five flowers pollinated, which was the average in the PWCabp from previous years. Timing of the 2022 season was a month behind past years because of an extended cold spring. Most trees in the study as well as hundreds of adjacent trees had very poor fruit set. Many factors were not significant. It is unexpected that so many of the factors were insignificant. This experiment will need to be continued in order to verify the results. Continuing this experiment will be beneficial as it will increase knowledge on the fruiting process and help emasculation and pollination protocol change to become more efficient.

78Research Proposal (Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical Biology)Blake Vander TopVander TopKyrah Turner, Peter O. Awinda, Bertrand C.W. TannerBioengineeringBert TannerTannerPullman

Danicamtiv is a new drug that is being tested to see the effects on cardiac myosin activation. This new drug is being developed to enhance cardiac contraction in patients. Pigs and rats are the two species that this new drug has been tested on, and some effects on humans are being tested in clinical trials. This study aims to characterize molecular and cellular effects of Danicamtiv on strips of cardiac muscle from pigs and rats. Permeabilized (skinned) cardiac strips will be activated with and without the drug to see the effect on myosin activation, force production, and myosin cross-bridge kinetics from the drug. Individual cardiac strips will be pared down and taken from the same cardiac sample. The strips are then placed on hooks and submerged in a low calcium solution bubble in oil, where the calcium concentration can be changed to elicit contraction. One side of the hooks is attached to a force gauge and the other to a motor to control the strip length during contraction-controlled motor. Strips are first activated with a high calcium solution to find what the activation tension is in this sample without any Danicamtiv. The strip is then relaxed with a low calcium solution to get back to a baseline tension. Next the strip is then reactivated with Danicamtiv and the new tension is recorded. The activation tensions are then compared to see the effects of the drug. A new strip is then tested in the opposite order to see if the order of activation on the strips changes the effect of the drug. Preliminary testing has shown a increase in cardiac myosin activation and muscle force production in the pig samples when activated with Danicamtiv. While the pig samples have been showing an increase in activation, the rat samples haven’t been showing any significant increases in myosin activation. A possible reason could be different isoforms of the cardiac myosin expressed in the heart of the different species. More testing is needed to make any definitive results and to find any possible reason as to why the drug effects the species differently.

79Research Proposal (Social Sciences)Madeleine ChastainChastainAthletic Training, KinesiologyKen FaunceFauncePullman

There has been little examination on how the economic power of European Colonial power has continued to effect the economy of the Caribbean and thus the people of the Caribbean today. The purpose of this paper explores how European economic power over the West Indies (modern day Caribbean) lead to the exploitation of these commonwealth countries in the 19th century. This is further explored by how the events of the past continue to effect the Caribbean’s economy today. Current news articles on the relationship between the Caribbean and previous European colonial powers inspired this paper. Research on the economics of the West Indies was later expanded to include a historical journal article which argues the economic value of the West Indies in the 19th century, a scholarly journal articles which examines the development of banking and the economy in the West Indies and a book on the economic history of the Caribbean. These sources provided details of how the use of taxes on the Caribbean people to increase economic gain for the colonists, lack of a central banking system, and restriction on diversification of the Caribbean’s economy by European powers still continues to effect Caribbean countries today. Today the Caribbean continues to struggle with entry into the global market and increasing the economic wealth. This research will give further depth into the reasons why the Caribbean economy continues to struggle today.

81Engineering and Physical SciencesCamdon RitterbyRitterbyMichael AllenPhysics and AstronomyMichael AllenAllenPullman

The distance to the RR Lyrae star WZ Hya was determined to test how well period-luminosity-metallicity (PLZ) relations agree with current parallax measurements from Gaia. We obtained 120 photometric observations in the B, V, ip, and zs filters from February 16 to May 28, 2022. Fluxes were extracted using 6-aperture photometry methods. The period found for WZ Hya was 0.5377 ± 0.000464 days. Using the theoretical PLZ relations a weighted average distance of 936 ± 23 parsecs was determined for the V, ip, and zs filters. The Gaia DR3 distance is 982 ± 15 parsecs. The distance determined using the PLZ relation is consistent with the parallax-determined value from Gaia within 2 standard deviations.

82Applied SciencesHallie SimpsonSimpsonFood ScienceCarolyn RossRossPullman

Bitterness is one of the five basic tastes that is present in many foods and most pharmaceuticals. The presence of bitterness is commonly perceived as a negative or disagreeable flavor and this is often associated with our bodies' self preservation techniques in recognizing toxic or poisonous food that have bitter tastes. The objective of this research project was to compare the chemical make up and instrumental analysis of bitterness using the Electronic tongue to the human perception through the sensory evaluation of bitterness. This project focused on analyzing bitterness in pharmaceuticals such as ibuprofen, and aspirin as well as commonly bitter compounds such as caffeine, quinine, and propyl. In an attempt to determine how well the electronic tongue detects bitterness, several tests were run, looking for correlations between the compounds. The e-tongue placed the compounds into three clusters which were further studied using a sensory evaluation.

83HumanitiesKeren Gomez-VillanuevaGomez-VillanuevaKira CarbonneauElementary EducationKira CarbonneauCarbonneauPullman

Everyone should be able to read since it is a fundamental right, right? Wrong! In recent findings, the IRIS Center stated that on average about 25% of students in a general classroom struggle with reading. The question is, how can we effectively help students improve their reading comprehension? In previous investigations, manipulatives are often known to be used in the mathematics subject area and have been proven beneficial to improve students' mathematical understanding. Nonetheless, manipulatives can also be an essential tool for reading comprehension. This research will reveal that manipulatives and concrete tools can be implemented in reading instruction to help students improve their reading comprehension. We know that being kinesthetically involved and using motor skills helps retain information more effectively. This is why we will dive into the different manipulatives tools that can be applied in the classroom to help students improve their reading comprehension and attain literate success.

84Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyDane WashingtonWashingtonEduardo Sanchez, Alla Kostyukova, Dmitri TolkatchevBioengineeringAlla Kostyukova, Dmitri Tolkatchev, Eduardo SanchezKostyukovaPullman

Protein engineers can design and produce specific proteins to analyze natural effects of mutations. Multiple mutations in human granulin modules (hGRN-A,B,C,D,E,F,G, and p) of the widely expressed progranulin could be linked to many neurological diseases such as frontotemporal dementia (FTLD). FTLD is a set of progressive brain disorders, localized to the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, causing symptoms such as aphasia and behavioral swings. To better understand the effects of these mutations in dementia patients, each mutation must be explored separately. In this study, hGRN-E was modified by a FTLD-related mutation (W24C) to test a correlation between the disulfide bond formation and proper folding of this protein. Using two partially overlapping primers with the MFH-hGRN-E pET21b plasmid as a template, the primers were designed with one change from guanine to cytosine set in place. Using PCR, the mutated plasmid was expressed and confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The process begins by transforming the mutated plasmid into BL21DE3 competent E. coli cells. The cell’s lysate was then analyzed for expression using 18% SDS-PAGE, which resulted in a confirmed mutated MFH-hGRN-E expression for the samples with added IPTG shown as a band with molecular weight ~ 21,000. This result enables further purification and analysis of the mutated protein. By analyzing one mutation at a time, the effects of mutations on progranulin can be identified, leading to more proficient treatment strategies and possible prevention of FTLD in the future.

85Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyMolly GreinerGreinerHanna Delgado, Abby Eaker, Maren FriesenBiochemistryHanna Delgado, Maren FriesenDelgadoPullman

Microbes drive ecosystems around the world. Soil microbial communities have a profound impact on plant host functions by mediating nutrition, defense, metabolism, and hormonal pathways. Recognition of the importance of microbial communities to ecosystems and plant function is growing, but large gaps in scientific and public knowledge remain. The Bodega Bay Project aims to fill these gaps by increasing understandings of host-microbe coexistence with species abundance surveys, soil sampling, and fine-scale sampling of microbial communities from an established field site in Bodega Bay, California. The field survey site is divided into a grid system that allows sample and survey data to be collected in the same locations consistently, while also minimizing impacts on the ecosystem. Field surveys of clover species have been taken since 2000, while population density data, plant, and soil samples have been collected yearly since 2015. Data analysis is ongoing. The current goal of this project is to analyze and present patterns of community diversity and species co-occurrence over time. This analysis will contribute to understandings of evolutionary and ecological relationships between plant hosts and their associated microbial communities. Future goals of the project are to better understand microbial-plant relationships over time. Data collected annually allows for determination of ecological patterns of these relationships. Soil samples will undergo DNA sequencing to generate microbial community data, which will be used for investigating relationships between soil microbial communities and surrounding plant species. Insights will be gained into the relationships between legumes (such as clover) and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, known as rhizobia, in their root nodules. Additionally, sequencing and analyzing plant and bacterial genomes will lead to a better understanding of underlying genetic changes and evolutionary rates of the host plant and plant-associated bacteria. Results and insights of current and future goals will not only broaden scientific knowledge of a rapidly expanding field, but also could have direct implications for agriculture, human health, and natural ecosystems.

86Social SciencesJasmine WillisWillisSociologyJulie KmecKmecPullman

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic the way in which students have become accustomed to learning was based upon in person classroom settings where the overall student expectations of the course and the professors' expectations of the students were accepted and understood by the student population of the classroom. During the pandemic, a transition into online/web remote learning became a common practice, in doing so many courses were altered in a way that made it easier on the student since online/web remote courses tend to be more difficult with a lack of in person instruction. For students entering the college setting this appears to have led to the formulation of new expectations of how courses should function regarding the professor's role in setting up students for success. As instruction goes back to in person these new set expectations have caused conflict and confusion amongst the student population. Professors are changing their courses back to its original form, minus a few added or subtracted details as courses never remain the exact same even without a pandemic, and students do not understand why their courses have become ‘more difficult’ than before in their course expectations and outcomes. Rather than placing the blame on the situation, they are placing the blame primarily on the professors and universities themselves. My question involves how and why this is occurring and to also create ways of helping professors better understand their students and to also help the students gain a more positive attitude of their professors and education. Overall, I hypothesize that the transition from online/web-remote courses back to in person courses has lowered the students' expectations of course difficulty and increased student expectations of the professor's role in setting them up for success. To answer this, I have set up two surveys; one survey for professors and one for students, where questions include topics of how they interact with classroom instruction and course expectations, along with their personal experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results for this study are still currently pending but will be described when complete.

87Engineering and Physical SciencesFaraz AbounorinejadAbounorinejadJames A. Brozik, Evan L. Taylor, Eric P. Jacobo, Alexandre D.C. Dixon, Kui Ting LamPhysics and AstronomyJames BrozikBrozikPullman

The silicon and germanium rhodamine zwitterions have emerged as promising fluorescent probes for single molecule biophysics experiments. This is due to their relatively high quantum yields, which describe how efficiently these molecules convert excitation light into fluorescence signal and allow for a better signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, they are of interest due to their resistance to photobleaching, their near-infrared excitation range, and the ability to chemically modify them to tune the rates of processes including intersystem crossing and triplet depopulation.

The utility of these fluorescent probes is often limited to experiments where their characteristic photophysical rates are the most optimal. This typically involves switching fluorescent molecules on and off through transitioning in and out of the triplet state, which increases resolution in exchange for a lower fluorescence signal. To this end, we report the intersystem crossing rates, triplet depopulation rates, fluorescence lifetimes, and relative quantum yields for silicon and germanium rhodamine zwitterions in water.

The photophysical parameters for both silicon and germanium rhodamine were also measured under varying oxygen concentrations. This explores the dissolved oxygen’s effect on the triplet state kinetic parameters and on photostability, which refers to how often the probes are affected by photobleaching through reactive oxygen. The spectra and fluorescence lifetimes are compared at both room temperature (aqueous phase) and 77K (cryogenic glass phase). Current experiments are exploring the effect of pH and solvent polarity on the behavior of these molecules.

88HumanitiesTahlia SanchezSanchezEnglishAshley BoydBoydPullman

My recent research and writing has centered on ways I can implement young adult literature to help highlight different cultures and to teach social issues in the classroom. Therefore, I plan to expand to my unit plan that focuses on Teen Dating Violence for potential use in my future classroom as well as in other secondary English classrooms. The reason for this focus, is because one in three teens in the United States will unfortunately experience physical, sexual, or emotional abuse before they become adults. This unit plan will help students understand that abuse can occur within their age group and will help them identify the early signs of abuse and provide resources on how to escape an abusive relationship. As a future English teacher, I am being trained to provide an education to students that is effective and age appropriate. This unit plan is also beneficial to both male and female students because it allows them to acquire knowledge regarding abuse. Also, when discussing such a difficult topic it is important to provide a safe environment where commentary can be guided, and questions welcomed. Lastly, to successfully lead students through this social issue, I have furthered my research by purchasing young adult novels that focus on Teen Dating Violence. This helped expand my unit plan and determine which books fit my criteria the best.

90Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyCalis EmeryEmeryErin Keller, Robert Pearhill, Izaak Dinh, Jesse Brunner, Erica CrespiBiologyErica CrespiCrespiPullman

Salt pollution is occurring with increasing frequency in freshwater habitats across the United States and has been shown to have adverse fitness consequences on many amphibian species. Additionally, climate change is projected to increase temperatures in amphibian habitats, which may have additional fitness consequences. In this experiment, we tested the individual and combined effects of salinity and temperature on ranavirus infections in the cold-adapted wood frog Rana sylvatica, a species which is highly susceptible to infectious disease. Wood frog eggs were collected from high and low salinity populations in Connecticut (n = 3/type), transported to Washington State University, and allowed to develop in group housing at diurnal temperatures with a mean water temperature of either 14.5°C or 17.5°C (n=43-48 larvae/temperature/population) in low salinity water to determine if water quality of the natal pond affected disease outcomes. Larvae (Gosner stages 27-33) from each group were exposed to five strains of ranavirus with different expected virulence based on previous tests in Xenopus frogs. Larvae were exposed to a standard dose of virus or control in individual containers for 24 hours and observed for 14 days to measure mortality. Logistic fit analysis of variance was used to determine treatment and strain effects on survival, and survival analysis was conducted to observe differences in the time of death across treatments and viral strains. We found that some source populations were more susceptible to infection than others (p=0.0097), but this was not dependent upon the salinity of the origin pond (p=0.6012). We also found mortality rate was affected by viral strain (p<0.0001), but not entirely as expected. For example, one of the strains expected to be less virulent had the highest mortality rate of any strain in all populations. Interestingly, warmer temperatures delayed the onset of mortality and reduced total mortality over all strains and populations by 13.5% (p=0.0001). Because wood frog larvae are adapted to allocate energy towards rapid growth and development at colder temperatures, they may have a weak immune response to the virus. Increasing the temperature may have supplemented this energetic trade-off by boosting an intrinsically weak immune response, thereby increasing survival.

91Research Proposal (Social Sciences)Areli OrozcoOrozcoCriminal Justice and Criminology, PsychologyAdesope OlusolaOlusolaPullman

Research is limited regarding people of color in the field of psychology. For example, in an article by Laura D Seligman they had studied anxiety symptoms in first semester college students and failed to consider the variable of ethnicity and racial backgrounds.

Based on literature review, this research is only one of many that overlook ethnicity and/or racial backgrounds. If these variables aren’t considered, the views on first generation students are skewed and the barriers that other ethnic and/or racial minorities face are made invisible. Without taking into account these differences the interventions will likely fall short of helping minority students.How 

I believe that the results of this research project will reveal that ethnic and/or racial minorities differences will play a significant part in a first-generation college student anxiety level. This knowledge will bring awareness to the differences between first generation students that have anxiety and lead to interventions that address the differing issues that cause their rise.

92Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyTse Wei KuoKuoKyrah L. Turner, Kenneth S. Campbell, Bertrand C.W. TannerNeuroscienceBertrand TannerTannerPullman

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of heart disease characterized by thickening of the heart wall, which limits the capacity of the heart to pump blood around the body.  From a genetic standpoint, it is most frequently caused by a mutation within a gene called MYBPC3, which encodes for a protein called cardiac myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C). MyBP-C helps regulate the interaction between different protein components inside the muscle fiber that generate force, most specifically the thin filaments of actin and the thick filaments of myosin. This actin-myosin interaction generates muscle force and shortening at the molecular level. Prior measurements for our laboratory used transgenic mice lacking MyBP-C expression in the heart. We showed that the loss of MyBP-C increases the calcium sensitivity of contraction in muscle fibers. We also found that the maximal force produced decreased compared to control mice. Calcium sensitivity of contraction is an important index underlying the activation of muscle contraction, and a decrease in the maximal force suggests these hearts cannot pump blood efficiently. To better understand the relationship between force dynamics and biological conditions of cardiac muscle, we developed a set of mathematical models in collaboration with a colleague at University of Kentucky. Our modeling used an open-source software program called FiberSim, a computational muscle contraction model that integrates MyBP-C. It takes a series of biological parameters as inputs and predicts how these changes can affect the prediction of muscle contraction. The purpose of this project is to help better understand the links between current model inputs and the actual biological measurements in cardiac muscle. We also aim to test parameters causing HCM and examine the difference between simulation outputs and experimental data.  Our simulation result shows that FiberSim does recreate some of the biological responses observed such as the change in calcium sensitivity. However, the scale of the predicted force does not match the experimental data very well. Additional changes to the computational model are ongoing to better understand and describe our measurements.

93Applied SciencesEllie GuthGuthGiulia B.C. Leite, Marcos I. MarcondesAnimal SciencesGiulia BerzoiniBerzoiniPullman

As the demand for efficiency in dairies increases so does the demand for one of the highest selling grocery list items in the U.S: milk. Oftentimes consumers play precedence to a certain type of milk, whether it be whole, 2%, skim, and so on. The milk yield and composition rely not only on genetics but also on management practices, including the not often correlated reproduction aspect.  Thus, this assay aims to determine whether heat detection practices instituted by dairy managers have a significant impact on milk composition and production and farm profitability. We used a discrete Markov Chain model, simulating the 22-d period of one bovine reproductive cycle, to estimate a 10-year dairy evolution model. Using Microsoft Excel Solver non-linear asset, we subjected the model to constraints as: herd range from 900-1,000 cows and voluntrary culling rate from 0-40%, and data from the 10th year was used (steady state of the herd) to evaluate the response depending on 3 heat detection methods: visual evaluation (VO), tail markers (TM) and electronic detectors (ED) for Florida (FL) and Washington (WA) states, totaling 6 scenarios. Milk prices were taken from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA, December 2022).

94Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyChass NelsonNelsonJon OatleyChemistryJon OatleyOatleyPullman

The field of reproductive biology relies upon using biomarker genes to label different populations of cells within tissues such as the testis. In the testis, male gametes go through a maturation process called spermatogenesis which starts with undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia, followed by spermatocytes, round spermatids, and elongating spermatids. There are also somatic cells in the testes which include Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, myoid cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Researchers in reproductive biology use biomarkers to determine what type of cells express their gene of interest. However, many of the traditional biomarker genes often do not have thorough scientific evidence to demonstrate that they are in fact expressed solely in a certain type of cell. The purpose of this study was to investigate some of the traditional biomarker genes in male germ cells and see what cells they are actually expressed in. This project used single-cell RNA-sequencing data of approximately 35,000 cells in adult mouse testis and analyzed genes such as Kit, Lin28a, Lin28b, Gfra1, Thy1, Zbtb16, Id4, Pdx1, Eomes, and Neurog3. The analysis was done in the computer program R and the bioinformatics package Seurat. The results concluded that several of these genes are not germ-cell specific or are not specific to one type of germ cell. This serves as evidence that many biomarkers cannot exclusively be used to say that a certain gene is only expressed by a specific type of cell without further support.

95Arts and DesignZoey Thompson, Sophie WoodmanThompsonApparel, Merchandising, Design and TextilesArmine GhalachyanGhalachyanPullman

The purpose of this project was to develop an adaptable backpack for people with Down syndrome and to raise awareness about the lack of adaptable products for people with disabilities and the need for inclusive design in the apparel industry. Twenty percent of Americans have at least one disability and one in every 772 babies born in the U.S. has Down syndrome, according to CDC. People with Down syndrome may have unique characteristics such as small stature, longer torsos, shorter arms, low muscle tone and lack of fine motor skills making some apparel products hard to use, thus not accessible. The available adaptable backpack choices are limited and usually geared towards children. Our backpack, the Scrunch and Snap, is created for individuals with certain physical and cognitive disabilities seeking more independence in their daily lives and stylish and sophisticated look that can make their day brighter. The backpack is easy to put on and features extra-long straps that can be easily shortened to the desired length once on the person and fastened with magnetic snaps. No hard-to-use zippers or other closures are used. It also has a sleek, sophisticated, and inconspicuous design. The bag is also two-in-one. The inner lining/bag can be removed from the faux leather shell and used as a washable and stylish tote bag with adjustable straps, making this product multipurpose and versatile. Mix and matching the shells and totes along with customizable add-ons make this a desirable bag for all. This type of adaptable products can play an essential role in helping individuals with Down syndrome and other health and cognitive conditions to lead more independent lives and be more successfully integrated in the society and various activities.

97Engineering and Physical SciencesJulia StevensStevensEarth Sciences (Geology)Sean Long, Nolan BlackfordLongPullman

Ductile strain in the footwalls of detachment faults contributes to the overall strain field and should be accounted for in reconstructions of extension, though this is not often done. The study focuses on the Northern Snake Range (NSRD) core complex which are metamorphic rocks exposed by faults, and Schell Creek Range (SCRDS) in eastern Nevada, where ductilely sheared metasedimentary rocks, rocks formed by burial and pressure applied to sediments, in the footwall of the NSRD are exposed. Ductile strain is irreversible stretching caused by stress. Detachment faults are gently dipping normal faults which occur when the land above the fault moves down relative to the land below the fault. The Schell Creek Range (SCRDS) to the west is interpreted to be the breakaway zone, or where the fault breaks the surface, for the NSRD. The footwall of the SCRDS exposes the same rock units as those beneath the NSRD and provides an opportunity to quantify ductile strain which is the purpose of this study. 

We used the Rf-φ method strain analysis on detrital quartz clasts to measure 3D strain ellipsoids from 19 samples of quartzites in the footwall of the SCRDS, which is interpreted as the breakaway zone for the Northern NSRD. The data show low-magnitude, bedding-subnormal flattening strain, with no trends in strain magnitude observed with transport-parallel distance or structural height beneath the SCRDS.  

The X directions in the samples are dominantly NNW-trending, indicating that the SCRDS footwall was not overprinted by the ESE-trending X direction that typified ~38-22 Ma ductile extension below the NSRD. The gentle flattening strain likely represents the regional background strain magnitude prior to Paleogene extension on the SCRDS-NSRD system and provides an important initial condition that ductile strain below the NSRD can be restored to. Restoration is used to investigate earlier stages of geologic development .The data is consistent with published interpretations that NNW-trending linear fabrics in the Schell Creek Range were the result of low-magnitude ductile stretching during Jurassic-Cretaceous contractional deformation, and with published thermochronometry that indicates that the SCRDS footwall cooled below the quartz crystal-plastic transition (~300°C) by ~50 Ma. 

98Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyPooja ReddyReddyJennifer Mattera, Jennifer A. Madigan, Erica Crespi, Maria GartsteinPsychologyJennifer Madigan, Erica CrespiMadiganPullman

Approximately 50% of pregnancies in the United States result in adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and emergency cesarian sections, thus there is an increased interest in identifying factors that could be contributing to these outcomes. We investigated whether maternal cortisol concentration measured from hair samples during the third trimester can be used as an indicator of adverse health outcomes. Hair cortisol concentrations reflect an aggregate measure of circulating cortisol levels, which also have been shown to be an indicator of chronic physiological stress in animal models and some human studies but has not been widely used in pregnancy-related studies. Circulating cortisol concentrations naturally rise during pregnancy and peak at birth, as this hormone mobilizes energy needed for maternal and fetal tissues and is important for development of the fetal brain, lungs, and heart. However physical or psychological stressors can elevate cortisol levels even further. We hypothesized that if these kinds of stressors are associated with birth complications, then maternal hair cortisol concentrations during the third trimester will be higher in women experiencing unexpected birth complications. To test this, we assayed hair cortisol concentrations in a sample of women in their third trimester of pregnancy (n=103) who also described birth outcomes during the COVID pandemic. In this sample (89% Caucasian, 6.8% Asian, 3.9% Hispanic/Latina, ages 21-41, mean 32 years), 39.6% reported some kind of birth complication, although 11.7% were diagnosed with a “high-risk” pregnancy. Of those who identified as high-risk, 50% experience birth complications, while 38% of those who did not identify as high-risk experienced complications. Contrary to our prediction, however, hair cortisol concentrations did not vary between women who reported birth complications. Additionally, hair cortisol was not associated with gestational age at birth or birth weight. Future research is needed to understand the relationships between post-partum hair cortisol concentrations, perceived stress, anxiety or depression of mothers and infant temperament in women experiencing birth complications.

99Social SciencesMartha LumLumAgricultural and Food Business EconomicsEric Jessup, Jake WagnerJessupPullman

The COIVD-19 pandemic highlighted supply chain and export challenges for the agricultural industry; this is of particular interest for states where many commodities are exported. This paper focuses on the impacts of agricultural exports on farm income in the Pacific Northwest. Farm level incomes from Washington, Idaho, and Oregon from 2010 through 2021 are analyzed. Income data is in broken down by agricultural industries for each state on a yearly basis. Production and export values were given at a commodity level and grouped to match income groupings. We will use a fixed panel regression with state specific and US total exports and production for the selection agricultural commodity groupings for the given states and years. Analysis for each state individually and regional impacts can be used to better understand the connection between export markets and the direct impact they have on farm incomes. Based on preliminary results, there is a positive correlation between higher export values on the state level and increased farm income. It is expected that increased production correlates positively with income for each state. Increased exports on the state level are expected to positively impact state level incomes. The results are also used to analyze the impacts of COVID-19 on agricultural exports and incomes. Analysis of results for years 2010-2019 and 2020-2021 compares pre-COVID and initial COVID income and export relationships. It is expected that COVID-19 negatively impacted exports, with decreased farm incomes during pandemic years. Results from this research provide insight into the impact of exports on Pacific Northwest states agricultural incomes and initial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

100Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyStephen FawcettFawcettMicrobiology, SpanishAlan GoodmanGoodmanPullman

West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the United States and is one of the most common mosquito-borne pathogens in the world. Two strains of the virus, New York-99 (NY-99) and Kunjin virus (KUNV), share high sequence identity. However, the two strains differ in that NY-99 is able to inhibit the mammalian antiviral interferon response, while KUNV NS5 contains a point mutation and cannot inhibit the mammalian interferon response. Whether NS5 inhibits innate immunity in insect hosts remains unknown. The goal of this study is to investigate the ability of NY-99 to inhibit an insect innate immune response, using the Drosophila melanogaster model. To accomplish this goal, we analyzed gene expression of two antiviral cytokines (upd2 and upd3) in infected Drosophila S2 cells and adult animals. We hypothesized that expression of these cytokines would be significantly downregulated in NY-99 infected cells and would be relatively unaffected by KUNV infection. Preliminary results show that expression of upd2 is significantly downregulated in NY-99 infected cells as compared to KUNV and uninfected cells. Additionally, in NY-99 infected Drosophila, upd3 expression is significantly downregulated compared to KUNV infected flies and uninfected flies. The results obtained from this study will show how WNV evades innate immunity in an insect host and can be translated to understand how viruses persist in the vector mosquito.

101Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesEric SimpsonSimpsonMathematics, PhilosophyDaryl DeFordDeFordPullman

This research project analyzes the accuracy and fairness of delegative democratic systems, which are increasingly being considered and explored around the world as an alternative to representative democratic systems. Using agent-based modeling, we can investigate the behavior of individuals and the emergence and impact of network topologies in these systems. This is a novel approach for studying such systems, allowing for a more nuanced understanding of the dynamics of the democratic process. Our objective is to develop a provably optimal voting model that incorporates the dynamics of proportional representation into majoritarian voting systems which can then be used to better understand, design, and predict real-world voting phenomena.

In order to accomplish this, we analyze conditions that guarantee stability and convergence for proportional voting systems, and how they can be used to create theoretical foundations for such systems. For instance, in majoritarian systems, agents are only incentivized to compromise up to the point where a majority is achieved, resulting in the emergence of two large network components made up of the compromising agents. Our work extends this analysis to multi-party systems that are provably possible in the context of proportional representation, in contrast to the two-party convergence predicted by Duverger's Law in majoritarian representation. The outcomes of this research could be used by policymakers and election officials to design more optimal voting systems that better reflect the diversity and nuance of the opinions in society while minimizing polarization and promoting democratic ideals such as fairness, representation, and accountability.

102Engineering and Physical SciencesJuan PenaPenaVivienne BaldassarePhysics and AstronomyVivienne BaldassareBaldassarePullman

Every large galaxy has a supermassive black hole at its center, but we don’t know whether the same is true for low mass galaxies. According to the definition by NASA, a black hole is a region of space where gravity pulls so much, nothing can escape, including light, and the gravity is so strong because the matter has been squeezed into a tiny space which often happens when a star is dying. Our search for supermassive black holes in low mass galaxies can help us understand black hole origins.  Using telescopes there has been black holes discovered in certain low mass galaxies. I am searching for more black holes in low mass galaxies by looking at their variability over time.

103Research Proposal (Applied Sciences)Katy AyersAyersBiochemistry, BioengineeringNick Naeger, Jennifer HanNaegerPullman

Fungal biomaterials have favorable material properties that can be leveraged to provide novel solutions to existing environmental and industrial problems. They are produced by growing fungi using organic waste materials like sawdust, effectively turning industrial byproducts into composite materials with numerous applications. It is well established that habitat loss and viral infections are major contributing threats to declines in populations of wild pollinators. Findings from the WSU Bee Lab suggest that fungal extracts fed to honeybee colonies reduced viral loads in bee populations. Therefore, fungal biomaterials could be a sustainable option for increasing nesting habitat for solitary bee populations. This study will assess the optimal fungal species to grow nesting habitats for native bees. We will test for ideal species, production conditions, resilience to long term outdoor exposure, bee nest-site material preferences, and effects on bees’ health. First, fungal species will be compared for growth rates. Then they will be compared in compression, tension, and bending strength, both before and after ultraviolet (UV) radiation. For mechanical testing, samples will be cultivated and then subjected to UV radiation for 24 hours prior. Sixty samples of all species will be taken to obtain statistical significance. Data will be analyzed to calculate ultimate stress, strain, and elastic modulus. After mechanical testing is completed, nesting blocks will be grown and deployed across the state of Washington for field trials. The fungal and control bee hotels will be collected for analysis of the bee larvae at the end of the season. This analysis will directly compare numbers of pollinator species nesting in the fungal bee hotels versus a traditional wood and polystyrene bee hotels. Finally, viral analysis will show if any medicinal benefit is incurred by bee species nesting in fungal habitat. Nature already has the tools for a more sustainable future; now, it is up to us to learn to use them.

104Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyCarolyn Morris, Rachel PilgrimMorrisCallan Lichtenwalter, Amber Adams-ProgarAnimal Sciences, ZoologyAmber Adams-ProgarAdams-ProgarPullman

Dairy cattle are adversely impacted by the presence of non-native European Starlings during feeding, resulting in less efficient feeding and an increase in aggressive behaviors for the impacted dairy cattle.  Both less efficient feeding and an increase in aggressive behaviors by the dairy cattle result in increased costs for the dairy farm through additional management costs and lower milk production due to less efficient feeding. 

The study analyzed video footage of dairy cattle feeding pens from January and February 2022 at both Washington State University dairy and University of Idaho dairies to correlate the presence of European Starlings in the feeding pins with both aggressive behavior of the cows and how many cows were occupying the feeding bunks.  The video footage was analyzed in 5-minute increments with the number of European Starlings, the number of feeding bunks occupied by dairy cattle recorded for each 5-minute increment and the number of aggressive behaviors exhibited by the dairy cattle recorded for each entire 5-minute increment. 

While data collection and analysis is still ongoing, preliminary analysis of limited selected data indicated that dairy cattle exhibit 525% more aggressive behaviors when there are large numbers of European Starlings present.  Preliminary data is less conclusive when looking at the feeding bunk usage, indicating that up to 32% more feeding bunks are used when large numbers of European Starlings are present. While contrary to the expect result, the data is probably somewhat less conclusive due to the fact that all of the periods with lower numbers of European Starlings present occur in the very late evening when the cows are less likely to be feeding.  Additional data collection and analysis for the feeding  bunk usage will help eliminate time of day bias.  Based on the preliminary analysis, the presence of a higher number of European Starlings leads to a very significant increase in aggressive behaviors by the dairy cattle than when fewer or no European Starlings are present.

105Arts and DesignJuliann YuskoYuskoApparel, Merchandising, Design and TextilesArmine GhalachyanGhalachyanPullman

The goal of this project was to give new life to materials that are traditionally wasted, and to encourage consumers to think about the waste they produce. Overpackaging and branding, as well as the use of non-recyclable packaging are important problems that the average consumer may not think about when they purchase a product. Since the 1960s, population growth and increased product demand and consumerism has led to increased waste in all industries, including textiles and packaging.

The packaging of Crown Royal, traditionally a small purple and gold drawstring textile bag, while iconic and useful as branding for the product, is a prime example of excessive packaging. The goal of this project was to give a second life to these bags, by incorporating them into the design of a gown, a wearable and useful product. It was designed to reuse as much of the material as possible, using the front and back panels of the bag to make a larger piece of fabric for the skirt, the sides of the bag to make a corset bodice, and the drawstrings of the bags make up the corset lacing. The rest of the bag pieces are carefully collected and turned into decorative elements using various creative techniques. Tremendous amounts of textile and packaging waste is sent to landfills, adding to waste and environmental degradation. This project raises awareness about the valuable wasted resources and need for sustainable production and consumption processes.

106Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyRyan FaddisFaddisRyan Schmid, Hayden R Wright, Zach Fisher, Ryan J McLaughlinNeuroscience, PsychologyRyan McLaughlinMcLaughlinPullman

Given the rapid increase in cannabis use due in part to its legalization by many states across the US, understanding the effects of cannabis use is of great importance to public health. One of the most cited reasons for habitual cannabis use is to cope with stress. However, the causal impacts of stress on cannabis use have not been thoroughly investigated. Our laboratory has developed a novel paradigm involving response-contingent delivery of vaporized cannabis extracts in rodents that more accurately models the intrapulmonary route of administration that is most popular among human cannabis users. We used this model in the current study to evaluate effects of chronic stress on rates of cannabis self-administration in rats. The locus coeruleus is the main source of noradrenergic neurons in the brain and plays a primary role in the acute stress response. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid system, which is the target of the primary psychoactive component of cannabis, is a known regulator of stress-induced locus coeruleus activation. Thus, a secondary objective was to investigate the effects of chronic stress and cannabis self-administration on stress-induced activation of locus coeruleus noradrenaline neurons. Male and female rats were trained to self-administer ∆9 tetrahydrocannabinol-dominant cannabis vapor (150 mg/ml @ 69.9% THC) or vehicle vapor (4:1 propylene glycol: vegetable glycerol) in one-hour sessions for 10 consecutive days to establish a baseline rate of responding. For the next 14 days, rats were subjected to 30 min of acute restraint stress each day prior to their daily self-administration session. On the following day, rats were subjected to 5 min inescapable swim stress to simulate an acute novel stressor. Animals were then euthanized and brain slices encompassing the locus coeruleus were processed for immunolabeling of the immediate early gene c-fos specifically in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons. We hypothesize that stress will increase cannabis self-administration in both sexes, and that stress-induced activation of noreadrenaline neurons will be attenuated in the cannabis group relative to the vehicle group. Altogether, these studies will provide novel insight into the relationship between stress and cannabis use and investigate a potential neurobiological mechanism by which cannabis use impacts stress reactivity.

107Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyDanika DalviDalviJanice Parks, Maren FriesenBiochemistryJanice ParksParksPullman

Many studies have been done to see how intercropping, the practice of growing two or more crops in proximity and monoculture techniques, the practice of growing only one crop in an area can affect crop growth. Studies have shown that growing pea and canola together results in a 65% increase in land productivity. In this study, we aim to determine the extent that plant associated microorganisms and nitrogen fertilizer affect the growth of pea and canola in an intercropped system to explain why we see an increase in land productivity. We found that with no nitrogen fertilizer, canola growth increased when grown with peas versus when it was grown independently. We also found there was an increase in the growth of canola with the addition of nitrogen fertilizer regardless of the cropping system. The positive impacts of nitrogen fertilizer and peas were found to be independent of each other. When assessing the impacts of the intercrop and nitrogen fertilizer on peas, we found that pea growth and nodulation (the presence of nodules on pea roots) were not significantly impacted. A nodule is a root structure where nitrogen producing rhizobia (bacteria) are housed. All conclusions were made with 95% confidence. It is thought that pea associated microorganisms are contributing nitrogen to canola that it otherwise would not be able to access, which is why we are seeing a positive impact of pea on canola growth. These findings could contribute to more sustainable farming practices as they could lead to a decrease in the need for synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. These fertilizers are known to have negative environmental impacts such as soil and aquatic acidification in addition to facilitating the growth of harmful algal blooms and dead zones in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, limiting the use of nitrogen fertilizer would play a vital role in decreasing the environmental impact of our farming systems.

108Social SciencesJenna SchmidtSchmidtCaroline B. Smith, Beatrice Caffé, Elizabeth A. Holdsworth, Olivia Brooks, Janet E. Williams, David R. Gang, Mark A. McGuire, Michelle K. McGuire, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Courtney L. MeehanHuman BiologyCourtney MeehanMeehanPullman

Objective: Despite increasing cannabis use among reproductive-aged women, little is known about breastfeeding women’s decision-making processes when using cannabis. Here we investigate the factors that influenced breastfeeding women's extent of concerns regarding cannabis use during lactation.

Methods: We recruited 20 breastfeeding participants from two states (Washington and Oregon) with legalized sales of cannabis. Participants were at least 21 years of age, <180 days postpartum, had a full term (≥37 weeks) delivery, and report using cannabis ≥ 1 time per week. We asked women to rate the level of concerns they had about their cannabis use while breastfeeding and used an iterative qualitative methodology to derive themes from women’s open-ended responses regarding their decision to use cannabis while breastfeeding. 

Results: Most participants (n=16, 80%) reported very few or no concerns about using cannabis while breastfeeding. We derived four themes from women’s open-ended responses which indicated that in making the decision to use cannabis, breastfeeding women are 1) taking on the researcher role, 2) monitoring their child’s health and development, 3) monitoring and titrating their use of cannabis, and 4) acknowledging the tradeoffs in their decision.

Conclusion: Women actively engage in seeking out information and assessing the risk associated with their cannabis use while breastfeeding and, ultimately, perceive that risks to their breastfed infants are low. Healthcare providers should initiate discussions about cannabis use with postpartum patients and ask about reasons for cannabis use while breastfeeding to guide recommendations.

109Engineering and Physical SciencesZakora MooreMooreKitana Kaiphanliam, Bernard Van Wie, William C. DavisBioengineeringBernard Van WieVan WiePullman

Cancer immunotherapy involving the transference of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) has steadily been shown to amplify a patient’s immune system, thereby increasing their chances of successful treatment. As CTL production is an inherent response against cancerous cells, T cell expansion methods are plentiful but, unfortunately, remain inefficient. Manufacturing constrictions, such as time and expenses, in the T cell immunotherapy space have resulted in the need for more efficient methodologies to expand CTLs, such as the current development of a perfusion bioreactor made to optimize CTL production via rapid expansion balancing outward centrifugal and inward fluid shear forces to maintain ultra-high cell population densities. Although many parameters have been identified to significantly impact CTL growth, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels is critical when expanding cells in an ex-vivo, centrifugal bioreactor. We hypothesize that by modeling DO levels over time in the perfusion bioreactor as cells grow to high densities, we will be able to determine optimal gas feeding rates and the effects of recycle on DO levels in the culture. A series of trials were performed prior to establishing the DO model, which consisted of real-time monitoring of different bovine CTL culture densities expanded in a continuous flow recycle system. Resulting DO levels were applied to empirically derive the CTL oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a modeled parameter that will be significant in ensuring cells grow to optimal high densities in the perfusion bioreactor and, as a result, alleviate manufacturing bottlenecks for cancer immunotherapy treatments.

110Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyCaleb KimbellKimbellAsaph Cousins, Haley SchraderBiochemistryAsaph CousinsCousinsPullman

Climate change is dramatically shifting global temperatures causing moderate environments to become extreme. Extreme temperature reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis and the ability of plants to grow in these environments. Photosynthesis provides the energy for plant growth and reproduction through the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) into glucose. However, extreme environments reduce a plants access to CO2 and H2O making it difficult for plants to photosynthesize efficiently. One way plants have adapted to these extreme environments is by actively concentrating CO2 to minimize H2O use and increase photosynthesis under hot temperatures. This CO2 concentrating mechanism is called C4 photosynthesis and is used by important crop species such as corn and sugar cane as well as by many grass species. While photosynthesis in C4 crop species does operate efficiently under current temperatures, they are predicted to struggle under future extreme temperatures. However, one C4 plant native to Death Valley, California has been found to perform well under extreme high temperatures. The species Tidostromia oblongifolia performs optimal C4 photosynthesis at 47°C but it is not understood how it can operate under this high temperature. The CO2 concentrating mechanism in C4 plants is driven an enzyme called phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) which catalyzes the first irreversible and often the rate limiting step of the pathway. This photosynthetic PEPC evolved from an ancestral non-photosynthetic PEPC and has different catalytic properties and potential thermal tolerance in T. oblongifolia. Therefore, I hypothesized that the thermal kinetic properties of the photosynthetic PEPC will be different from the non-photosynthetic PEPC. Kinetic properties of an enzyme determine the rate of reaction and it is unknown how temperature impacts the kinetic properties of PEPC. Data presented in my poster demonstrates that at 45°C the kinetic properties of the non-photosynthetic PEPC and the photosynthetic PEPC did not differ. This data suggests that additional comparison across a range of temperatures is needed to understand the thermal adaptive properties of PEPC in the heat-adapted T. oblongifolia.

111Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesAiden WalkerWalkerComputer ScienceDiane Cook, Raven Weaver, Maureen Schmitter-EdgecombeCookPullman

As we age, life becomes more difficult, and we begin to rely on others. However, this puts a strain on the person being relied on, as they have to provide, and the person relying; most people want to be independent. This becomes even more important when the patient has dementia. The long-term goal is to create an intervention to intervene in a caregiver's natural environment by providing encouragement and reminders about helpful behavioral strategies at predefined moments in daily life that are likely to be stressful. The primary objective of this is to measure and detect day-to-day patterns of activities and interactions between members of the dyad, concurrently in the real-world environment; and to use intensive longitudinal methods and machine learning techniques to predict causes of within-person changes and future stress levels. This would help reduce the burden on the caregiver, as they could rely on the predictions to update them if the user isn’t feeling well. It would also help the user, as they would be less reliant on other people. To achieve this, a machine learning model predicts responses to EMA questions, which are questions used to evaluate how a person is feeling. The smartwatch collects data such as movement, heart rate, and location. The data was collected through five different pairs of people. These watches not only gathered data, but also detected whether the pair was interacting with each other. The users would then be prompted after this interaction with EMA questions. This happens multiple times throughout the day, and at the end, the user gives an audio recording about how their day was. Each pair gathered data continuously for 1-2 weeks. This data is cleaned, and then statistically broken down to create an output that is then run through eight different machine learning models, to train them to predict each EMA output. So far, the accuracy of the machine learning models has been promising (>70%), even across large datasets, showing the potential machine learning has to predict stress levels.

112Research Proposal (Social Sciences)Sandy Tlachi-MunozTlachi-MunozPsychologyJessica WilloughbyWilloughbyPullman

University students, specifically first-generation, are often in new living situations and may be confronted with alcohol and cannabis use decisions. These new environments and the possibility of using substances may lead to conversations they are particularly unfamiliar with, such as conversations about navigating substance use with others in their living community. Therefore, I am interested in how first-generation college students’ living communities impacted their confidence to discuss substance use. This study aims to discover common themes through interviews and inform our understanding of how students communicate concerning substance use. Results can help develop intervention programs to help students navigate a healthy academic lifestyle and improve social interaction skills.

113Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyMacy Garrood, Madeline MuirGarroodKelly Hewitt, Skylar Nicholson, Angela HenricksNeuroscienceAngela HenricksHenricksPullman

The purpose of this study is to compare the neural circuitry involved in alcohol drinking behavior between male and female rats. Women throughout history have been understudied, and self-reports show women tend to drink for negative reinforcement reasons. From this the hypothesis was formed that the stress circuit is more involved in female alcohol dependence. Multiple steps were done to test the hypothesis in rats. Female and male rats were trained to self-administer alcohol, then electrodes were implanted in the brain in three areas, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Half of the rats were then placed in a vapor chamber to establish alcohol dependence using a chronic intermittent paradigm (14 hours exposed to vapor, 10 hours not). While in acute withdrawal, rats self administered alcohol while recording local field potentials (LFPs) from three brain areas. Preliminary results show that higher amygdala activation in female rats when drinking indicates a stronger stress circuit component. Whereas the male rats had higher activity in the NAcSh which indicates a stronger cortical striatal component. Since there is a higher activation of the stress circuit in female rats this could mean that their drinking behavior stems from a negative reinforcement mechanism while the higher activation of the reward circuit in the male rats suggests that their drinking behavior might emerge as a positive reinforcement mechanism. To determine more about these related neural circuits, more research must be done on the stress related circuits and drinking behavior in males and female rats.

114Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyGrace FieldsFieldsMarcos I. Marcondes, Ícaro R. R. Castro, Giulia B. C. Leite, Juana C. C. Chagas, Andrew Bartelheimer, Alynn Harder, Dinorha LandinAnimal SciencesMarcos MarcondesMarcondesPullman

Dairy calves are fed starter feeds that are often a combination of both ground and whole grains in addition to protein, vitamin, and mineral additives, and can be found in different physical forms. It is well-known that the processing and physical form of starter feeds (PFSF) can impact the calves’ health, intake, and overall performance. However, regardless the relevance of this topic, the literature available is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate if there is a direct impact on the health, water intake, food consumption and general performance of calves fed starter feeds differing in the physical form. For that, 24 Holstein calves were randomly assigned to two treatment groups in a completely randomized block design. Both diets had the same nutritional compositions, one group received a protein pellet ration while the other group was fed a texturized ration (60% protein pellet, 40% whole-kernel corn), and had free access to drinking. Weight, withers height, and health scores were recorded in all calves. The calves were each weaned at 67 days after undergoing a step-down weaning protocol. The study found that the PFSF had no significant effect on feed (P > 0.05) or water (P > 0.05) intake. Additionally, growth parameters including wither height, average daily gain, and body weight were not affected by the treatments (P > 0.05). Likewise, ear position, cough and other clinical signs of disease were not affected by PFSF. However, general attitude (P = 0.010), presence of eye discharge (P = 0.004), total respiratory score (P = 0.019), and fecal score (P = 0.04) of calves fed the texturized diet were improved compared to those fed the pelleted diet. These results demonstrate that the PFSF is not significantly impactful on overall intake and performance of calves, but a texturized diet did improve calf health.

115Arts and DesignSierra RothlisbergerRothlisbergerZach Colligan, Shelby Ruiz, Julia DayInterior DesignShelby Ruiz, Julia DayRuizPullman

The purpose of this study was to address the critical role of occupant behaviors in overall building energy usage and costs through implementation of a tenant engagement program in buildings across the WSU Pullman campus. A range of interventions were administered such as installing Smart Power Strips (SPS’s), educational training, and marketing materials. SPS’s are power surge protectors that manage the on/off state of electronics while plugged into the strip, while also providing specific timed settings throughout the week. They use this automatic scheduling to turn off selected devices, eliminating energy consumption via phantom plug loads during non-business hours.

Thanks to grant funding from the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, 200 Smart Power Strips have been bought and installed in offices and workstations in select buildings on campus. During the installation process, data for devices plugged into the strips was metered, logged, and analyzed to determine total energy consumption per device. Using these device calculations, we projected savings over time (1-10 years) and based on the number of installed SPS’s (Quantity 50, 100, etc).

Original goal metrics established by WSU Facilities Services were to save an estimated $8,912 in utility costs for fiscal year 2021, which was met with an estimated 42% plug load savings.

116Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologySophie ShiraliShiraliNeuroscienceTravis Brown, Amit ThakarBrownPullman

Obesity is associated with numerous health risks, including type 2 diabetes, cancer, arthritis, high blood pressure. A major contributor to the obesity epidemic is the ease of availability and overconsumption of foods high in fat. Our lab and others have shown that exposure to foods high in fat causes adaptations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region of the brain critical to executive functions such as decision making. The food-induced adaptations within the PFC following exposure to palatable diets may play a key role in driving maladaptive food seeking behaviors. Our lab has recently shown that exposure to foods high in fat alters perineuronal nets (PNNs) within the PFC of Sprague Dawley rats. Within the PFC, PNNs primarily surround GABAergic fast-spiking interneurons responsible for maintaining the excitatory/inhibitory balance of the local neuronal circuit. PNNs are specialized extracellular matrix structures that contribute to synaptic stabilization as development progresses and are comprised of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) such as brevican, neurocan, versican, and aggrecan. While brevican. Neurocan, and versican were found to be derived from glial cells, aggrecan is primarily derived from neurons. Our hypothesis is that the CSPG components, brevican, neurocan, and versican will be attenuated following exposure to a diet high in fat due to their dependence on glial cells, which play a critical role in inflammation. To test our hypothesis, we are using multiple techniques including Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunohistochemistry to identify the components of PNNs that may be impacted by high fat exposure. To date, we have qualitatively identified protein bands reflective of molecular weights corresponding to the CSPGs discussed above and are currently having those bands verified with mass spectrometry. Our ultimate aim is to selectively target these CSPGs to modify maladaptive food seeking behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity.

117Research Proposal (Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information Sciences)Ethan VillalovozVillalovozComputer ScienceDiane CookCookPullman

Our goal is to provide technological support for automated cognitive health assessment and intervention. One type of self-report assessment is a person's response to "in the moment" ecological momentary assessment (EMA) questions. We hypothesize behavior context can be used by a machine learning algorithm to predict responses to EMA questions.

In this project, we extract digital behavior markers from continuously-collected Apple Watch data for persons with cognitive limitations and their caregivers. We evaluate the ability of the learning algorithms to predict EMA responses from the behavior markers and assess the types of behavior contexts most indicative of stressful and non-stressful interactions. The machine learning algorithm will be captured using smartwatches and machine learning, using other related methodologies of ambient sensors to capture data. The project is at the very early stages in our timeline; we are heading in different directions and will soon narrow down our outline to ensure data collection will be most affected and be able to give a strong interpretation of what we find. We will achieve data collection by the time of the conference.

118Engineering and Physical SciencesEvelyn HanceHanceEmily A. Savoy, Clifford E. Berkman, Feyisola P. Olantunji, Nooshin Mesbahi, Christine L. LovingierBiochemistryEmily Savoy, Clifford BerkmanSavoyPullman

Prostate cancer is one of the most prominent cancers in the United States, and targeted chemotherapy is a promising strategy for its treatment. We synthesize a pH-responsive cleavable linker to achieve payload release after exposure to acidic conditions to potentially target prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expressing cells in the lysosome/endosome.The pH-responsive cleavable linker is stable at physiological pH, ensuring efficient and safe drug delivery. The linker comprises a cleavable phosphoramidate (P-N bond) and a self-immolate spacer. At physiological pH, the linker remains stable as it travels through the body until it reaches the lysosome/endosome, where it triggers the release of the intended payload through hydrolysis of the self-immolated spacer and P-N bond cleavage. This linker system is solely responsive to changes in pH, initiating the release of the payload into the target cells. One important aspect of our linker system is that it is universal and amendable for click chemistry, meaning modification of this linker can be utilized for potentially relevant targeted chemotherapeutics. Through this phosphoramidate linker, we observed controlled release of two different payload types: amine and alcohol based. Herein, we report the controlled release of alcohol-based payloads with our pH responsive phosphoramidate linker system. Our results demonstrate the potential use of this pH-responsive cleavable linker for targeted chemotherapy delivery to PSMA expressing cells, and for the development of future chemotherapeutic agents.

119Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyAnisha KarnikKarnikSean Thompson, Iwona Driskell, Ryan DriskellBioengineeringRyan DriskellDriskellPullman

Skin development is a complex process where multiple layers form that house different cell types. Cells from different layers interact to develop functional structures such as hair follicles. Dermal fibroblasts, a cell type from the middle layer of skin, are critical to facilitating the formation of hair follicles during skin development and regenerative wound healing. The Driskell lab has previously identified that expression of the transcription factor Lef1 is required for murine back skin wounds to regenerate hair follicles and also plays important roles in back hair development, growth, and maintenance. Critically, mouse fur is composed of a mixture of four different types of hair. The Driskell lab has previously shown that dermal expression of Lef1 is important to establish which type of hair develops in fur as well as the length of the hair. Mouse whiskers are a different hair type than fur because they are integrated into the vasculature and nerve environment of skin, allowing them to serve critical sensory function that fur does not normally provide. Mouse whiskers more closely resemble human hair at a morphological and sensory level than mouse fur does. It is currently unknown what the role of dermal Lef1 expression is during whisker development and maintenance. Examining the whiskers and cheek pads of Lef1 conditional knockout mice revealed distinctions in the facial structure. We hypothesized that changes in the cheek pad skin layers due to the loss of dermal Lef1 expression were responsible for the alteration of facial structure. We used a variety of histological approaches to understand how the structure of the cheek pad changed due to the loss of dermal Lef1 expression.

120Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyVanessa Solorzano-CardenasSolorzano-CardenasAllison Jensen, Kristen Delevich, Ryan McLaughlin, Kanako HayashiNeuroscience, PsychologyKristen DelevichDelevichPullman

The widespread legalization of recreational cannabis has resulted in an increasing social acceptance of cannabis use, highlighting the need for translationally relevant models to study the neural mechanisms that underlie the physiological effects of cannabis use. Current models of cannabis use in rodents frequently utilize injections of THC at high doses or administer synthetic CB1R agonists, which fail to accurately represent how humans typically use cannabis, i.e., smoking or vaping. To mimic the human method of administration, we are working to validate a cannabis vapor inhalation model for use in mice. Mice are powerful preclinical research models due to the wide variety of genetic tools available. In our current study, we are using transgenic mice to determine whether cannabis type 1 receptor (CB1R) expression is necessary for the physiological and behavioral effects of cannabis vapor. CB1 receptors are mainly located in the CNS, where they oversee the mediation of behavioral functions including learning and memory, sensory and locomotion, and homeostatic processes. The investigation will focus on measuring the effects of THC-enriched whole-plant cannabis extract in CB1 knockout (CB1-/-), heterozygous (CB1+/-), and wildtype (CB1+/+) mice.  Adult male and female mice (≥postnatal day 70) will be subject to pre- and post-exposure measurements of body temperature, hot-plate withdrawal latency, and locomotor activity. Furthermore, post-exposure THC metabolic levels in plasma and tissue will provide data regarding the pharmacokinetics of THC and its relationship to the physiological and behavioral effects we observe. We will perform 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the interaction of genotype, treatment (150 mg/ml cannabis extract vs. vehicle), and time point (pre- vs. post-exposure) on body temperature and hotplate withdrawal latency. Locomotor activity will be compared using a 2-way ANOVA with genotype and treatment as the independent variables. We hypothesize that the CB1 knockout mice will not display cannabis vapor-dependent effects on body temperature, nociception, or locomotor activity despite having similar levels of THC metabolites in the blood compared to wildtype mice.

Keywords: Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1, Cnr1 gene mutation, Cannabis Vapor Exposure, Mice

121Social SciencesLauren CornwellCornwellEnglish, SpanishMichael ThomasThomasPullman

Imitations of English-accented Spanish, especially humorous imitations, are a window into the phonological perception of native (L1) Spanish speakers. In the Spanish of L1 speakers, two unstressed adjacent vowels in a single word are typically pronounced as a diphthong (Hualde, 2005). Conversely, due to English phonotactics, L1 English speakers who learn Spanish will often pronounce these same vowel pairs as separate syllables instead of in a diphthong (Kilpatrick C. D., 2009; Zárate‐Sández, 2011; Kilpatrick & Scarpace, 2010). In order to explore perceptual phonotactics, this study hypothesized that L1 Spanish speakers who imitate English-accented L2 Spanish would lengthen their pronunciation of Spanish diphthongs into two separate syllables. Searches of TikTok and YouTube surfaced nine L1 Spanish speakers performing imitations of English-accented Spanish. By measuring the length of all vowels and vowel clusters, comparison could be made between the average length of typical monophthongs, two-syllable vowel strings, and the vowel clusters which would be diphthongs with typical L1 Spanish pronunciation. Seven of nine imitators kept the Spanish-typical diphthongs when imitating a U.S. accent in Spanish. This suggests that due to Spanish phonotactics, L1 Spanish listeners either do not perceive or are unable to reproduce this aspect of the L1 English L2 Spanish accent.

122Arts and DesignStephanie CastroCastroApparel, Merchandising, Design and TextilesArmine GhalachyanGhalachyanPullman

The focus of the project was designing adaptive clothing for children with Down syndrome. Children with down syndrome tend to have shorter limbs, rounder bodies, shorter heights, as well as sensitivity to fabrics and tags. Children with down syndrome may also have difficulties with motor skills, as well as other medical problems like stomach intestinal problems and congenital heart defects. Caregivers and parents often have a hard time shopping for children with Down syndrome because most apparel comes in standard measurements which are catered for the general public, not individuals with special needs. Pajamas and onesies can often pose difficulties for children with Down syndrome. For example, many parents choose to put on their children’s pajamas backwards to prevent them from accessing the zipper and removing the garment. A common wish is to have specially designed pajamas with the zipper on the back, however, no such garment can be found on the market. To solve this issue and provide parents with clothing that works for their children, a new onesie was developed containing specific adaptive features. A neck-to-ankle zipper was placed on the right back side of the garment. Two welt pocket openings were incorporated on the stomach area to allow abdominal access for children with gastrostomy, to allow access for a gastrostomy tube for direct nutrients into the stomach. A kangaroo pocket was added over the abdominal openings to make the garment more stylish and the opening discreet, which also allows the child to place hand in the pocket for comfort. The garment was assembled so that no raw edges or seams touch the body, so the child does not experience any sensitivity issues. This adaptive garment allows ease of use and ease of mind for parents and other caregivers dressing children with Down syndrome, helping to improve their quality of life.

123HumanitiesBelicia GuzmanGuzmanAnimal SciencesCharles WellerWellerPullman

This study examines how maternal mortality rates in the United States continue to rise overall. It continues to be almost three times higher for BIPOC women (Black, Indigenous, people of color) compared to White women when cared for by White physicians. Black women tend to have the highest rate of pregnancy-related deaths out of all races. On average, the CDC estimates that maternal mortality rates in the United States are 17 per 100,000 births, but for Black women, it is 43 per 100,000 births. Many of these deaths are preventable by treating underlying, unresolved health complications. BIPOC women are also at a disadvantage regarding the social determinants of health, due to food insecurity and not having fair opportunities for economic, physical, and emotional health. Intersectionality among BIPOC women describes how every human being has instances of oppression and disadvantage that can affect their socioeconomic status, racial identity, and physical ability. In 1840, physician James Sims performed experimental gynecological surgeries on Black women that were often performed with no anesthesia because he did not believe Black people felt pain. Overall, numerous experiments and surgeries on slaves were performed, and instances like these negatively alter the mindsets of BIPOC women when receiving care in hospital settings, because racism still exists and can result in ignorance. Specific factors contributing to rising maternal mortality rates in America regarding BIPOC women include unresolved, underlying chronic conditions and structural racism. Although the Civil Rights Movement occurred from 1954 to 1968 and resulted in the outlawing of segregation, mindsets of racism still exist today and live throughout multiple settings. Attitudes and stereotypes subconsciously naturally affect our thinking, decisions, and actions. This presentation will explain historical examples that contribute to intersectionality and social determinants of health that contribute to maternal mortality rates among BIPOC women.

124Engineering and Physical SciencesBrooke DowningDowningSam Karcher, John McCloyMaterials Science and EngineeringSam Karcher, John McCloyKarcherPullman

Rare earth elements (REEs) have a wide range of uses, most notably in technology such as magnets in speakers and motors, touch screens, night visions goggles, and batteries. The 17 REEs are crucial for these technologies, in part due to unpaired 4f electrons which lead to their unique optical and electronic properties. One of these properties include luminescence which many REEs exhibit in the range from ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths. Although, due to the high cost and difficulty of extracting pure REEs and their widespread occurrence in raw ores, many chemicals are contaminated with trace amounts of REEs.

Raman spectroscopy is a common technique used to characterize a materials structure and bonds. An ongoing issue with REEs is the luminescence they exhibit overpowering Raman spectra of other chemicals. Some REEs strongly luminesce when excited in specific energy ranges, which introduces difficulties when other elements, with weaker excitation, are being viewed. This research seeks to characterize and build a database of REE luminescence signatures caused by excitation from a 455nm, 532nm, and 785nm laser. This documentation will allow researchers to easily identify unknown REE contaminants in a nondestructive and timely manner.

125Engineering and Physical SciencesJacob RoibalRoibalZach ColliganArchitectural StudiesShelby Ruiz, Julia DayRuizPullman

This study’s purpose is to assess and improve on the methodology of an existing procedure for the installation of Smart Power Strips (SPSs) in buildings across the Washington State University (WSU) campus. The goal of the existing program was to assess the feasibility of SPSs, which are advanced surge protectors with two sets of outlets, one set that is always on, and one with a timer to reduce the draw of power outside of scheduled work hours. However, the original methodology utilized ‘guerrilla-install’ practices, or the spontaneous recruitment and subsequent installation around our targeted buildings. While this strategy was very successful, it wasn’t efficient, and resulted in a few installations per week. This study is a portion of a larger campaign driven by broader tenant engagement, which compliments these SPS installations. This significantly impacts our target buildings' energy consumption.

This process was revised to include a comprehensive procedure and coordinated organization. Building on previously established relationships helps us with outreach within departments and makes the coordination of mass installations more efficient.  A mass installation is when we conduct our installs in prepared departments with pre-programmed SPSs and install all of them consecutively. By coordinating with departments beforehand, we gather all necessary information before the physical installations begin. We then sent our team out in pairs so that one person can record data while the other installs a pre-programmed strip. This allows for much faster installations, as one is complete, the pair is prepared to move on to the next SPS until each one within the department has been finished.

Our new procedures have allowed us to change our installation speed from 25 to 10 minutes and our monthly count from 10 to 47 installations per month. Another aspect of our new initiative is the establishment of an online infrastructure that includes FAQs, important materials regarding our study, and our energy and comfort survey allowing individuals to give us all necessary information required to coordinate a full installation. A concise procedure allows for more efficient expansion to the remainder of campus and furthermore greater cost and energy savings.

126Engineering and Physical SciencesMarcus FosterFosterJohannes Haemmerli, Scott BoroughsEarth Sciences (Geology)Johannes HaemmerliHaemmerliPullman

This paper aims to characterize an intriguing rock unit of the Belt Supergroup in Idaho, which hosts cobalt mineralization. The element cobalt has various uses, including in electrical vehicle and phone batteries. It is often called “the blood diamond of batteries” due to the perilous conditions of mines where it is predominantly extracted in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Hence, the presence of cobalt in rocks from the Lemhi sub-basin of the Belt Supergroup near Salmon, Idaho is intriguing due to the possibility that cobalt could be mined under responsible conditions. Although understanding processes for cobalt mineralization in the Belt Supergroup are challenging (e.g., Bookstrom et al., 2016), it is critical for future cobalt exploration. One of the challenges is that it is not fully understood why cobalt-rich minerals formed in specific places. This project aims to gain insights into processes that may have led to cobalt transport and formation of minerals. I study the mineralogy of a “host” unit where cobalt is found and hope to find clues about what fluids may have transported cobalt and when. We combine electron probe micro-analysis of minerals and whole rock analysis (via XRF & ICPMS) in order to learn more about processes that led to cobalt enrichment in the certain lithologies (areas of rock). First results show that the host unit has minerals that are rich in chlorine (a potential ligand for metal transportation) and there are many minerals, such as allanite and titanite, present, which can be age dated and hence reveal information about when critical fluids may have circulated.


Bookstrom, A.A., Box, S.E., Cossette, P.M., Frost, T.P., Gillerman, V.S., King, G.R., and Zirakparvar, N.A., 2016, Geologic history of the Blackbird Co-Cu district in the Lemhi subbasin of the Belt-Purcell Basin, in MacLean, J.S., and Sears, J.W., eds., Belt Basin: Window to Mesoproterozoic Earth: Geological Society of America Special Paper 522, p. 185-219, doi:10.1130/2016.2522(08)

127Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyMadeleine HarveyHarveyMingxin ShiBasic Medical Sciences, BiologyKanako HayashiHayashiPullman

Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects about 10% of reproductive-age women. It is characterized as endometrial tissue (inner lining of the uterus) growing outside of the uterus and attaching to surrounding tissue and organs in the pelvic cavity. Patients with endometriosis can experience many symptoms including severe chronic pelvic pain and fertility issues. Current treatment options include hormonal birth control, surgery, and estrogen blockers. These treatment options are not guaranteed to work as there is no known cure for endometriosis, and they have high recurrence rates. Additionally, the more expensive options (surgery, estrogen blockers) are not accessible to everyone who needs them nor are they feasible long term due to their possible side effects. The goal of this study is to explore cannabidiol (CBD) as a treatment option to target endometriosis-associated pain. As CBD is becoming more and more recreationally available, many users utilize CBD to treat chronic pain for a myriad of conditions. We want to understand the mechanisms behind this pain treatment and explore whether it can treat endometriosis-associated pain as well as how it influences the inflammatory response resulting from endometriosis. In order to create a dosing matrix for the CBD, zymosan (a natural macromolecule) was injected into the peritoneal cavity of mice to induce local pain similar to that experienced by endometriosis patients. They were then separated into three experimental groups and exposed to varying concentrations of CBD via inhalation (0mg/mL, 100mg/mL, 400mg/mL, respectively). Using a Von Frey stimulus test, their pain level before and after exposure was recorded over several days. The preliminary data showed a slight decrease in endometriosis-associated pain in the 400mg/mL group. The next step will be to induce endometriosis-like-lesions (ELL) in our established mouse model and repeat the exposure process.

128Arts and DesignMarina WilsonWilsonApparel, Merchandising, Design and TextilesArmine GhalachyanGhalachyanPullman

The Moth dress utilizes a pleating technique pioneered by Madame Gres, a French couturier whose fashion house went out of business in the 1970s. Only a few of Madame Gres’s seamstresses still teach the technique. Independent prototyping and exploration of this complex pleating technique and eventually completing a specific course in Paris, France allowed developing the necessary skills for designing the Moth dress and cape ensemble. The design technique is achieved by draping fabric directly onto a dress form and pleating and shaping it specifically to a person’s measurements. The upper front and back of the dress utilize Madame Gres pleating, with the rest of the garment using other couture sewing techniques. The floor-length silk dress is sewn with double-folded seams and is fully lined with cotton voile. The elbow-length cape has a high collar neckline and contains edge-binding and piping in major seams in contrast color. Specially designed and embroidered silk moths are symbolically sewn to the cape. The design of the dress is inspired by the silk moth whose caterpillar produces a cocoon made of silk. During silk fiber production processes, the caterpillar is generally killed in the cocoon to prevent it from chewing the fibers to ensure that the fiber is as long and continues as possible. Peace silk allows the moth to emerge and live on, before processing the cocoon. The significance of this dress design is twofold. First, the dress raises awareness about the inhumane treatment of silkworms. Second, it uses traditional couture sewing and design techniques, which have been largely replaced by industrial processes and automation. Preservation and continuation of these valuable techniques are important tasks for current fashion designers.

129Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyPeyton KrychKrychRita Fuchs, Jobe RitchieNeuroscienceRita FuchsFuchsPullman

Cocaine-use disorder is characterized by frequent drug relapse upon exposure to drug-predictive environmental contexts, and it is a major public health concern. Thus, understanding the variables that predict context-induced drug relapse is of great importance. Preclinical rodent models are a valuable tool for studying the factors that predict relapse-like behavior. Here, we analyzed rat behavioral data collected by our laboratory over nine years to examine the relationship between (a) biological/behavioral variables and study parameters and (b) the magnitude of context-induced drug-seeking behavior, and to construct a mathematical model of cocaine relapse. The rats (395 male and 116 female) were trained to press a lever for IV cocaine infusions (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) in a distinct context and subsequently received extinction training (i.e., lever presses were no longer reinforced with cocaine) in a different environmental context. Lastly, the rats were tested for cocaine-seeking behavior (i.e., unreinforced lever presses) in the cocaine-predictive context. The dataset contained 70 predictor variables, including body weight, sex, time of day for behavioral training, cocaine-reinforced behavior (i.e., number of lever presses and cocaine infusions during the last 10 days of training), extinction behavior (i.e., lever presses during 7 days of extinction training); and the outcome variable, cocaine-seeking behavior in the cocaine-predictive context at test. Analyses of variance revealed that female rats exhibited more robust cocaine-seeking behavior than males, but their propensity for cocaine-seeking behavior depended on the time of day. Correlational analyses indicated that body weight on training day 1 had a negative relationship with cocaine intake behavior, presumably affecting cocaine dosing, in females only. Furthermore, sex was the strongest predictor of cocaine-seeking behavior, but time of day, body weight, and extinction responding also significantly correlated with cocaine-seeking behavior. Surprisingly, these variables predicted only 24.8% of the variability in context-induced cocaine-seeking in a hierarchical regression model. However, we have identified several variables that should be controlled across treatment groups in future studies of cocaine relapse. Moreover, our findings provide a rationale for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms that underly the interaction between sex and time of day for behavioral training in determining relapse propensity.

130Social SciencesMatteya ProctorProctorCourtney Kurinec, Anthony Stenson, John Hinson, Paul Whitney, Hans Van DongenNeuroscience, PsychologyCourtney KurinecKurinecPullman

Coping refers to a complex set of cognitive and behavioral strategies that individuals employ to manage the demands of internal or external stressors. Adaptive coping (e.g., seeking support) is associated with positive psychological outcomes and emotional adjustment, while maladaptive coping (e.g., denial) is associated with negative psychological states of depression and anxiety. Because sleep loss is a common stressor, we hypothesized that adaptive coping would moderate the subjective experience of sleep loss in a controlled laboratory setting.

N=96 healthy adults (ages 21-38, 49% female) participated in one of three 4-day/3-night in-laboratory total sleep deprivation (TSD) studies. In each study, participants had 10h baseline sleep before 38h TSD, followed by 10h recovery sleep. Participants completed the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) before the study, and their self-reported affect and sleepiness were assessed every 2-4h during wake using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), respectively. Responses on the Brief COPE were grouped into adaptive and maladaptive coping scales.

Positive and negative affect and sleepiness ratings were analyzed with a linear mixed-effects model with fixed effects of test bout (categorical) and adaptive and maladaptive coping scores (continuous), with covariates for study, sex, and age, and a random intercept over participants. TSD reduced positive affect (F=100.59, p<0.001) and increased sleepiness (F=105.47, p<0.001) as a function of test bout (time awake and time of day); negative affect also increased during TSD but remained low overall (F=5.43, p<0.001). Higher adaptive coping scores were associated with greater self-reported positive affect during TSD (F=6.60, p=0.012). Higher maladaptive coping scores were associated with lower positive affect (F=4.24, p=0.042) and predicted greater subjective sleepiness (F=4.04, p=0.048).

Our results indicate that individuals with more adaptive coping and less maladaptive coping may better deal with the challenge of TSD. Understanding how coping mechanisms moderate the impact of TSD may lead to interventions that help those who often endure sleep loss, such as military members, health care workers, and even college students, have a better subjective experience. Future research should explore whether more effective coping and more positive subjective experiences during TSD improve objective performance.

131Engineering and Physical SciencesEmma RobertsRobertsJohannes Hämmerli, Russ Di FiorEarth Sciences (Geology)Johannes HämmerliHämmerliPullman

Understanding how and when the continental crust on Earth formed is still highly debated. Even in our own backyard we find crust of unknown age. Recent mapping by the Idaho Geological Survey has discovered certain rocks whose ages are unknown in the mountains 2.5 hours SE of Pullman. One of these rock units is deformed and it is unknown which of the common local rock types it may be. Is it a magmatic Cretaceous granodiorite (~100 million years old), an aluminous gneiss (originally a sediment), or a magmatic Mesoproterozoic orthogneiss older than a billion years? Resolving this question is important for understanding and reconstructing the formation and evolution of our continent.

Zircon minerals are important when trying to figure out the age of a rock because they contain unstable isotopes of uranium, which over time decay into stable lead atoms. Knowing the half-life of this decay process and the ratio of uranium to lead in the mineral, we can calculate the absolute age of the rock. For this project, I milled a rock sample into pieces no bigger than 500 micrometers and separated out most of the magnetic material using a magnet. With the left-over material, I used the gold panning technique to separate the zircon crystals from the rest of the material due to their high density. The zircon minerals are then carefully selected and mounted into an epoxy disk for further analysis. I use the EPMA at the Peter Hooper GeoAnalytical Lab at the School of the Environment to collect cathodoluminescence images of different growth zones. We use these zoned zircon minerals as a chronometer, similar to what we do with tree rings in trees. Based on these images we can target different zones to date these minerals via a laser ablation system that drills tiny holes into the minerals and whose released material is then transported in a plasma where it gets ionized and subsequently analyzed in a mass spectrometer. The measured uranium and lead isotope quantities can then be used to calculate an exact age for when this rock formed.

132Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyPeter YunkerYunkerPeter J. Yunker, Ginny I. Park, Alexandra N. Malena, Mckenna L. Spencer, Ryan J. McLaughlinBiochemistry, NeuroscienceRyan McLaughlinMcLaughlinPullman

Since the legalization of cannabis, the number of individuals diagnosed with cannabis use disorder (CUD) has increased. Approximately 1 in 10 individuals who use cannabis will become dependent and several studies have reported that men are more likely to develop CUD than women. This could be partly attributed to the ability of testosterone to sensitize the brain reward system to the effects of Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis. Accordingly, serum testosterone concentrations are higher in men with more recent cannabis use and male gonadectomized (GDX) rats receiving testosterone exhibit increased tolerance to the hypo-locomotor effects of THC. However, it remains unknown whether testosterone directly influences the reinforcing properties of THC, thereby increasing the risk of developing CUD.

To address this gap in knowledge, our laboratory has developed a translationally relevant model of cannabis use that employs response-contingent delivery of vaporized cannabis extracts in rats. We used this model in the present study to investigate the effects of GDX, with and without testosterone replacement, on rates of cannabis vapor self-administration. Male rats were randomly assigned to receive GDX or sham surgery. Of the rats assigned to GDX, half received a testosterone implant that releases physiologically relevant doses of testosterone daily, while the other half received a placebo implant containing no testosterone. Following recovery, rats were trained to self-administer a vaporized cannabis extract containing 69.9% THC (150 mg/ml) or vehicle vapor in 1-hour daily sessions according to an escalating fixed ratio reinforcement schedule for 21 days. On day 22, rats were challenged with a 3-hour progressive ratio test where the number of responses required to trigger vapor delivery was systematically increased to assess the motivational properties of cannabis vapor. Data collection for this study is still in progress. We hypothesize that male GDX rats with testosterone replacement will display increased rates of cannabis vapor self-administration, which would suggest that testosterone augments the reinforcing properties of cannabis vapor. Altogether, these studies will provide novel insight into potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in the prevalence of CUD, which could lead to personalized prevention and intervention strategies in clinical populations.

133Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyAlexandra MalenaMalenaGinny I. Park, Marisa A. Barrett, McKenna L. Spencer, Peter J. Yunker, Addison E. Thompson, Nicholas C. Glodosky, Carrie Cuttler, Ryan J. McLaughlinNeuroscience, PsychologyRyan McLaughlinMcLaughlinPullman

Approximately 9% of first-time users will become dependent on cannabis, yet there are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for managing cannabis use disorder (CUD). Due to flawed diagnostic nosology, there is a lack in understanding of the mechanisms that give rise to CUD; there is also a lack of translationally relevant animal models of cannabis use. To address these gaps in knowledge, we have developed a validated model of cannabis self-administration that delivers vaporized cannabis extracts via the pulmonary route of administration; this novel model uses response-contingent delivery of cannabis vapor. We used this model to identify behavioral factors that predict high vs. low rates cannabis-seeking behavior. To accomplish this goal, we conducted a battery of behavioral assays in female and male Long Evans rats prior to vapor self-administration training. Specifically, we characterized the phenotype of rats using preclinical assays that match the 5 behavioral dimensions of the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) (i.e., positive and negative valence, social communication, cognition, and arousal/regulatory systems). Subsequently, we determined whether performance in these tasks was correlated with the number of cannabis vapor deliveries earned during a progressive ratio test.

Preliminary results indicate that the number of trials required to meet criterion in the shift component of the attentional set-shifting and visual cue discrimination tasks were strongly correlated with the number of cannabis vapor deliveries earned during a progressive ratio challenge. Additionally, higher levels of social grooming during adolescence predicted higher rates of cannabis vapor self-administration in adulthood. Notably, the number of lever responses for sucrose also predicted high rates of vapor deliveries. Overall, these data indicate that poor cognitive flexibility, high social grooming during adolescence, and high motivation for sucrose are the strongest predictors of cannabis-seeking behavior in adulthood. 

Given that alterations in endocannabinoid (ECB) degradation have been associated with an exaggerated response to cannabis and increased problematic drug use, future studies will examine whether cannabis self-administration causes alterations in ECB hydrolysis and CB1R binding in brain regions involved in cognitive flexibility and stress coping.

134Applied SciencesXimena Herrera, Amari LoweryHerreraXimena Herrera, Skylar Nicholson, Kelly Hewitt, Angela HenricksNeuroscience, PsychologyAngela HenricksHenricksPullman

Prenatal exposure to infection and excessive stress is a contributing risk factor in developing several psychological disorders, including Schizophrenia, depression, and alcoholism. In addition, it leads the offspring to have a history of alcohol misuse due to viral stress being introduced during prenatal development. Little research has been done to understand how prenatal exposure to infection impacts brain development leading to the propensity to develop alcohol use disorder. Our lab has demonstrated the utility of the antioxidant treatment of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) in the reduction of alcohol seeking behavior. We hypothesize that NAC can prevent adult alcohol use behavior. Using pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats, we applied maternal immune activation (MIA), a model of prenatal exposure to infection combined with adolescent alcohol exposure (AE) which leads to increased drinking behavior in adulthood. Pregnant sprague-dawley rats were exposed to NAC or saline 24 hours before and after the MIA treatment. After birth, adolescents were given 24-hour home cage access to 10% ethanol (AE) using a two-bottle choice technique. In adulthood, rats were trained to press an active lever to self-administer 10% ethanol for 30 minutes, 5 days per week. Data from our lab indicate that prenatal exposure to stress impacts alcohol self-administration in rodents.We show that NAC treatment reduced self-administration in MIA females, and in MIA males; there was a slight increase in preference for active/inactive lever presses in self-administration. These data suggest that there is a sex link to adolescent drinking behavior following maternal immune activation in the womb leading to increased adult alcohol seeking behaviors in males. NAC exposure decreases the effect of MIA and reduces alcohol seeking behaviors in offspring. Overall, these data demonstrate the utility of NAC in decreasing alcohol intake in this model and the mechanism by which MIA alters drinking in adult offspring.

135Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesMoises CarranzaCarranzaJames Crabb, Matthew KusmanComputer Engineering, Computer ScienceChristopher HundhausenHundhausenPullman

In this study, we are evaluating current educational tools, frameworks, and assessments that are used in the development of cybersecurity academic curricula, and industry standards and policies. As we integrate work with technology, there continues to be a growing need for highly trained cybersecurity professionals. Being able to provide the best training for the next generation of cybersecurity professionals requires continued development of educational tools and techniques. Thus, the purpose of this project is to develop and improve tools for cybersecurity education and assessment to help current resources prepare cybersecurity personnel for industry environments.

Three cybersecurity frameworks will be evaluated to determine which learning outcomes within each framework needs improvement, in which new tools or revisions can be developed and applied to help strengthen and reinforce the learning objectives that are unsatisfactory. The three frameworks to be evaluated are the National Institute of Standards and Technology National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) framework, the Cybersecurity Curricula 2017 (CSEC2017) framework, and the National Centers for Academic Excellence in Cybersecurity (NCAE-C) framework.

Bloom’s revised taxonomy will be used to categorize each framework’s learning outcomes, task descriptions, and skills needed to complete each learning outcome and/or task within the framework, to the appropriate Bloom cognitive level in which further analysis will be performed to determine how effective each framework is at training cybersecurity personnel. Our current results indicate that the CSEC2017 framework focuses a majority of its learning outcomes in Bloom’s “Understand” level (Cognitive level 2), compared to the NICE and NCAE-C framework where learning outcomes are more balanced amongst the higher cognitive levels of Bloom’s taxonomy (Cognitive levels 3 – 6). Such discovery indicates that there is a difference in representation of what learning outcomes are of priority between all three frameworks, suggesting that not all frameworks, more specifically CSEC2017, prioritize the essential skills cybersecurity professionals need to be taught for industry environments. As of now, our results show us that current cybersecurity educational tools and frameworks used today need improvement and revisions to ensure that cybersecurity personnel entering the workforce are receiving adequate training to perform well in industry environments.

136Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyKalli StephensStephensRyan Finnerty, Wipawee WinuthayanonGenetics and Cell BiologyWipawee WinuthayanonWinuthayanonPullman

The oviduct (Fallopian tube in humans) is the site of fertilization and pre-implantation embryonic development. Current assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), bypass the oviduct. Although most babies born using ARTs are healthy there is an increased risk for epigenetic disorders and diseases later in life. Therefore, understanding oviduct function is necessary to identify factors that facilitate gamete function, embryonic development, and embryo quality. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are constituents of the luminal fluid in the oviduct and are secreted by oviduct epithelial cells. Evidence suggests that oviductal EVs (oEVs) added to cultures improve fertilization rates, prevent binding of multiple sperm to a single egg, and aid embryonic development. Interestingly, oEVs are thought to mediate crosstalk between cells by transferring molecular cargos containing RNA, proteins, and other metabolites. Additionally, oEV content varies at different points in the ovarian cycle, suggesting that oEV cargo is regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Therefore, we hypothesized that oEV protein cargo would vary at different developmental stages in early pregnancy, in concordance with hormones. In this study, oEVs were isolated from a non-pregnant control mouse and during 0.5-, 1.5-, and 2.5-days post coitus (dpc; after mating). The oEVs were then analyzed with mass spectrometry to determine the protein cargos. We identified approximately 1300 proteins that were shared between all samples, and hundreds of unique proteins at each timepoint. Most importantly, our principal component analysis showed that oEVs from pregnant mice differed from that of our non-pregnant control. These results will be validated using western blotting to confirm unique proteins at each time point. Transmission electron microscopy will be used to evaluate the structure and size of oEVs, as steroid hormones have been shown to affect oEV structure. It has been established that the addition of oEVs to culture improve outcomes of ARTs, but it is not feasible to collect oEVs from healthy young women. Therefore, these data may help to identify critical factors in the oviduct that are important for specific embryo developmental stages missing from cultures and to improve success rates of ARTs procedures.

137Social SciencesKestra EngstromEngstromEnglish, PsychologyAshley BoydBoydPullman

Many young adults graduate high school with no idea of the power they hold in their votes and their voice, predominately because no one ever taught them how important their role in the world is. I have designed a unit for an English classroom of twelfth graders who need to be ready to become powerful, informed citizens of the world through the lens of a single contemporary social issue – gun violence. I have drawn on a diverse authorship for this unit, from African American young adult author Jason Reynolds to Jewish teen poet Daniel Blokh. I have also utilized many genres and mediums to emphasize how rhetoric and political messaging are present all around us, from the music we listen to the news articles we read and the photographs and images inundating us. This unit also introduces students to political documents with the Second Amendment, a crucial text to include in a unit that examines gun usage in America. It is important to note that this unit intentionally excludes canonical classroom texts; this is designed to help students see how politics plays a role in the literature they interact with in their daily lives. With these texts and lessons, I hope to help bridge a gap that exists in the political power structure in America. I want students to understand how their lives and experiences are inherently influenced by politics, and how they, in turn, can influence politics, helping create a new generation that is not only knowledgeable of the sociopolitical adult world but is also inspired to partake in it.

138Engineering and Physical SciencesMikayden WeiseWeiseBrenden Fraser-Hevin, Kitana Kaiphanliam, Bill Davis, Bernard VanWieChemical EngineeringBrenden Fraser-HevlinFraser-HevlinPullman

Blood cancers such as leukemia can be deadly, and even with treatment, only 20% of those diagnosed will survive their first five years with this cancer. However, a T-cell-based therapy called immunotherapy has shown success in treating leukemia. Immunotherapy uses one’s own body to combat blood cancers, modifying healthy immune cells to destroy cancer cells. To perform immunotherapy, the growth of the patient’s T cells needs to happen fast and at a large density, but the process is inefficient and very expensive. Research and development in our lab have provided a solution: the continuous centrifugal bioreactor. This bioreactor grows T cells rapidly, in a sterile, high-population density chamber. Our group has created a model equation based on a line of human lymphoblastic leukemia T cells (CEM) to optimize cell growth in the bioreactor. Lactate and ammonium are produced as byproducts in the bioreactor and can inhibit T cell growth.  The goal of my experiments was to find the concentrations of lactate and ammonium that would inhibit cell growth for the model. In my first set of experiments, I prepared fresh cultures of CEM cells with varying concentrations of lactate and ammonium. The average fold increase for the cells at each lactate and ammonium concentration was determined. I found the values of lactate and ammonium that inhibit CEM growth to be 6.5 mg/mL and 8 mg/mL, respectively. These concentrations should not be met, otherwise, CEM growth will be inhibited. My next experiment was to determine the yield coefficient of ammonium for the bioreactor’s model equation. This yield coefficient represents the amount of ammonium that builds up over time and is important to ensure the inhibiting ammonium concentration is never met. Cell cultures were grown, and ammonium concentration was measured over time. The ammonium yield coefficient was calculated, and I will report on its value here. In conclusion, I determined several key ammonium and lactate values in our model, which will allow for the optimization of our bioreactor system and new solutions for patients undergoing treatment for leukemia and other blood cancers.

139Social SciencesGiselle JimenezJimenezKimberly C. Klein, Laura G. Hill, Jennifer C. DuckworthCriminal Justice and Criminology, Psychology, SpanishJennifer DuckworthDuckworthPullman

Background: Latinx US college enrollment is growing rapidly, but disparities exist. Latinx students report more barriers to attending college than other students and are less likely to attain a college degree, therefore tailored interventions are a priority. Further, in Latinx cultures, children are often expected to stay/live at home with their parents, therefore, moving away may be difficult for Latinx students. Given the efficacy of the "Letting Go and Staying Connected” parent-handbook intervention, which aims to provide parents tools to better support their college student while away from home for the first time, adapting the handbook for Latinx students may be useful. The present study uses qualitative interview data to address the following research questions: 1) Which experiences of sending their child to college are most impactful to Latinx parents? 2) How did the videos help expand the handbook project in meaningful, culturally-relevant ways, and 3) What areas could be improved upon? 

Method: A multiphase cultural adaptation following the ADAPT-ITT model is underway which includes adapting the handbook into six engaging videos for Spanish-speaking parents of new college students—two of which have already been filmed. Nine parents of Spanish-speaking college students took part in online interviews where they watched two video modules and provided feedback. We are employing an inductive, thematic analyses to analyze these data.  

Results: Overarching themes identified in preliminary findings include distance is difficult and letting go is hard for Latinx parents of college students. Latinx parents try to encourage autonomy for their college students, but also find that cultural factors and shifting parent roles make it challenging to let go of their college students. However, learning about first-hand accounts from other Latinx families, clarifying expectations prior to students leaving for college, and ongoing communication with their college students may help ameliorate these challenges.  

Conclusion: Having a roadmap for Latinx parents as they navigate their children going to college is useful. Parents found the cultural adaptation of this parenting handbook intervention was helpful to see that they are not losing their student, but that students are coming back home with a broader perspective of the world.  

141Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyJillian WroughtonWroughtonCamille Wagstaff, David CrowderBiochemistryDavid CrowderCrowderPullman

The beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus) is an insect known to decrease crop yields by carrying diseases such as Beet Leafhopper-Transmitted Virescence Agent (BLTVA), Beet Curly Top Virus (BCTV), as well as Spiroplasma citri bacteria. C. tenellus obtain disease by feeding on infected plants. When winter arrives, female C. tenellus shelter in winter weedy plants and hatch offspring. These offspring then spread disease by feeding on the plants that their mothers previously infected, causing a cycle of disease carrying C. tenellus offspring. These diseases then spread to summer crops during seasonal migrations.

The destruction of major economic crops is concerning as the pathogens spread by C. tenellus devastate potato, sugar beet, tomato, beans, peppers, fiber hemp and various brassica species. In specific, BLTVA has caused up to 70% potato crop losses. There has been up to 81% and 90% BCTV incidence in Colorado fiber hemp and Washington coriander, respectively.

The goal of this research is to improve the precision of pest management, and to overall reduce the spread of BCTV, BLTVA and S. citri to increase crop quality and yield. This can be achieved by expanding our current knowledge of the interactions between plants, pathogens, and insects, as well as understanding the effects that pathogens have on the interactions between plants and insects. It is specifically important to see how regionally available plant hosts impact the degree of damage that infectious C. tenellus can cause.

We hypothesize that high levels of disease are correlated to high seasonal availability of winter-susceptible weeds. To investigate this hypothesis, our first step was to Identify which plants C. tenellus overwinter on in the Columbia Basin by performing gut content analysis, and secondly to identify which of these plant hosts is eaten most by BCTV, BLTVA, and S. citri infected C. tenellus.

More research is needed to understand this overall relationship, as this would improve the productivity and quality of our summer crops. We are currently working on samples from 2020 and 2021.

142Social SciencesReece SchulkeSchulkeGitanjali Shrestha, Jordan Newburg, & Brittany CooperMathematics, PsychologyGitanjali ShresthaShresthaPullman

With the aim of promoting well-being in high-need Washington State communities, the Community Wellness and Prevention Initiative (CPWI) provides local communities with the information and funding necessary to reduce adolescent substance use. This study’s purpose is to determine if there are differences in positive social norm outcomes/protective factors across marginalized groups of CPWI youth. The results will further help communities target their resources and efforts.

The sample consisted of 17,290 10th graders from CPWI communities who completed the 2021 Washington State Health Youth Survey. Thirty outcomes of interest were measured across substance use and mental health domains (e.g., no use of e-cigarette in past month). Multilevel modeling was performed to assess significant differences among subgroups of CPWI youth in three demographic categories: race/ethnicity, gender identity, and sexual orientation. Odd ratios were calculated to estimate effect size.

Asian or Asian American youth, Hispanic or Latina/Latino youth, and Black or African American youth in CPWI communities had higher odds of positive social norm outcomes and protective factors compared to all other youth in CPWI communities. Males and heterosexual youth had significantly higher odds of these outcomes compared to all other youth in CPWI communities. For example, males in CPWI communities were 2.93 times more likely to not plan to attempt suicide compared to all other youth in CPWI communities. American Indian or Alaskan Native, multiracial, and LGBTQIA+ youth had lower odds of positive social norm outcomes and protective factors. Gender and sexual minority youth had significantly lower odds of these outcomes compared to all others. For instance, American Indian or Alaskan Native youth in CPWI communities were 0.36 times likely to have not used illegal drugs in the past 30 days compared to all other youth in CPWI communities.

Groups with low positive social/protective factors include American Indian or Alaskan Native, multiracial, and LGBTQIA+ youth. These groups may need additional community help to enhance their well-being.

143Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyOlivia WitherspoonWitherspoonConstance J. Bottoms, Debra Mitchell, Madeleine Harvey, Mingxin Shi, Jayden Romero, Kanako HayashiBasic Medical SciencesKanako HayashiHayashiPullman

Throughout the world, cannabis is the most universally used psychoactive drug. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) reported in 2020 that more than 48 million Americans ages 12 and older used cannabis in the past year. Since cannabis use is most popular among people between ages 18 and 35, an understanding of the consequences cannabis use on reproductive functions in offspring is crucial since the majority of consumers use cannabis during their most active reproductive ages. Additionally, an increasing number of pregnant mothers are using cannabis. It is undetermined whether the negative effects of cannabis use on reproduction are passed to subsequent generations due to germline transmission. We propose that in utero and nursing exposure to cannabis vapor effects the reproductive systems of offspring. The impact of cannabis vapor exposure during pregnancy and after birth was assessed through analysis of the gonads, steroid hormones, and sperm count and motility of the next offspring (F1). CD-1 female mice were mated with drug naïve male mice. Pregnant females (F0) on gestational day 1 (GD1) were exposed to control vehicle (80% propylene glycol and 20% grape seed oil), 100 mg/ml, or 200 mg/ml of cannabis extract for 30 minutes twice a day. Sperm count and motility, testes weight and histology, and body weight were assessed. Our data indicates that sperm count and motility was significantly reduced following 100 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL cannabis vapor exposure, when compared to vehicle.  No significant difference in sperm count or motility was observed between 100 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL treatments. Both testes weight and body weight were normal. This research is a starting point in examining the generational impact of cannabis vapor exposure on male reproductive systems. In summary, the results suggest in utero and nursing cannabis exposure affect male reproductive functions, leading to subfertility.

144Applied SciencesValerie AchzigerAchzigerGiulia B.C. Leite, Marcos MarcondesAnimal SciencesMarcos MarcondesMarcondesPullman

The dairy industry has been under scrutiny for its believed contribution to greenhouse gases and other environmental pollutants. Thus, it is essential to consider how increasing reproductive efficiency impacts the environment. Much data has been gathered on heat detection methods and their effects on reproductive and economic efficiency. To our knowledge, no study evaluated the effect of reproduction on methane and phosphorus excretion. We investigated heat detection methods' effects on the emission of methane and phosphorus from dairy cows in Washington and Florida. We used a Markov Chain model that engineered 10 years of performance of dairy cows. The Solver could change the voluntary culling rate of 3+ lactations (min 0% and a max 40%) and heifers sold at birth to reach a stabilized herd and a maximum annual profit. The constraints were min 900 and a max of 1000 milking cows. Data from the last year was computed to compare profit, milk, phosphorus and nitrogen excretion. Differences in breeding detection were calculated using visual observation (VO), tail markings (TM), and electronic detectors (ED). We used weather conditions from WA and FL to get a total of 6 scenarios. The milk production increased by 2% and 13% TM and ED compared to visual observations VO in WA. In FL, this increase was 1% (TM) and 2% (ED). In WA, the annual profit increased by 4% and 51% using TM or ED, respectively, compared to VO. In FL, this increase was 2% and 10%, respectively. A 6% difference in phosphorus and 3% in CH4 between FL and WA were observed. When shifting from VO to ED, there was a 7.8% difference in phosphorus excretion per liter of milk and a 2% difference in CH4. Switching from VO to TM reduced 3.8% phosphorus and 2% CH4/L. We concluded that the more advanced the heat detection method is, the greater the milk production efficiency, but the more significant the gross increase in methane and phosphorus excretion in the environment.

145Arts and DesignRowena GonzalezGonzalezApparel, Merchandising, Design and TextilesArmine GhalachyanGhalachyanPullman

From fiber cultivation to manufacturing and consumption, the apparel industry is full of negative environmental impacts. The industry produces 10% of carbon emissions and generates 13 million tons of textile waste per year, yet 95% can be recycled or reused. Waste culture in fast fashion, production processes, and laundering of clothing contribute to chemical and microfiber water pollution. Novel renewable materials such as Bacterial Cellulose (BC) can help to alleviate these sustainability issues. BC, a biopolymer produced by bacteria, has unique properties making it versatile for use in a variety of applications, e.g., biomedical engineering, cosmetic. The focus of this project was to develop BC leather-like material through Kombucha fermentation process for applications in textiles and apparel products. The ultimate goal for the future of BC is to become a reliable and preferred textile used in consumer products as a sustainable material/leather alternative. The product developed as a result of this research is a purse with an aesthetic based on pueblo culture. Pueblo culture revolves around the concept of sustainability, utilizing natural materials in environmental surroundings. Natives adapted to the harsh and barren environments by conserving their resources, building climate controlling adobe houses, and creating irrigation systems for crops. Laser-cutting technology was used to etch a classic Mexican pueblo village on the front of the purse. In addition, visible stitching was used to attach etched/laser cut significant cultural symbols such as the golden eagle, Dahlia flowers, cacti, butterflies, and the sun. These designs symbolize resilience, heritage, and the importance/ multiuse of natural resources. Tremendous amounts of waste sent to landfills, depletion of natural resources, and ecosystem pollution by hazardous chemicals and processes are currently very pressing issues. Novel renewable and biodegradable materials and environmentally conscious processes can lead to more sustainable apparel production and consumption practices.

146Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyMadison ArreolaArreolaJenna Douglas, Kanako Hayashi, James A. MacLean IIBiochemistryJenna Douglas, James MacLeanDouglasPullman

Insulin signaling, and insulin regulation play critical roles in female reproductive health. Abnormal insulin regulation and signaling, such as what is present in type 1, 2, and gestational diabetes, pose issues to normal reproductive function and are becoming more prominent within the population each year. Diabetic individuals have severe pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, fetal anomalies, fetal demise, and neonatal hyperglycemia. Insulin is essential throughout pregnancy, including preovulatory follicle development, implantation, and embryo development. Previously, the MacLean lab characterized the complete uterine KO of insulin signaling using Pgr-Cre. Insulin dysregulation led to decreased litter sizes, retained oocytes in the ovary, and reduced decidualization. To determine the impact of insulin regulation in embryo implantation, we are utilizing a uterine stromal tissue knockout of Insulin Receptor (Insr) and Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) using Amhr2-Cre. The stromal KO of IRs leads to early embryo loss consistent with recurrent pregnancy loss in diabetic women. The effects that insulin, insulin signaling, and insulin regulation have on the ovarian tissue and cell type are not widely understood. Amhr2 is expressed in granulosa cells in the ovary. The role of Insr and Igf1r in the ovary, ovarian tissue, cell types, and follicle development will be analyzed through the KO of the Insr and Igf1r receptors in the ovarian tissue of mice. Single and double ablation of Insr and Igf1r leads to varied litter size and increased gestation. However, the estrous cycle is not disturbed in KOs. Therefore, superovulation, ovarian morphology, and gene expression will evaluate the mechanisms for subfertility in insulin receptor KOs. 

147Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyLydia HalvorsonHalvorsonRishikesh GhogareAgricultural BiotechnologyRishikesh GhogareGhogarePullman

The global demand for peas has spiked in recent years as plant-based meat companies look to crops such as peas as a new alternative to reduce carbon emissions. Due to recent drought and bacterial blights which have wiped out pea crops, the need for resistant pea varieties has become increasingly important to combat diseases and drought. However, as of 2023, efficient pea transformation protocols have not been established for the genetic engineering of peas. The existing method of pea improvement utilizes plant breeding, which is time consuming and costly. A new framework pea transformation using a particle bombardment method has the ability to increase the efficiency and accuracy of genetic engineering. To test the protocol, a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene was inserted into pea genome using a gene gun. Peas after bombardment were evaluated through multiple stages of growth for the presence of this fluorescent protein. This was achieved using molecular techniques like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and confocal microscopy. The transformation efficiency of the protocol was determined by calculating number of independent transgenic events to conclude with significant evidence that particle bombardment provides an efficient transformation pathway as previously hypothesized in this experiment. This research establishes a foundation for replicable particle bombardment methods available in the genetic engineering of peas for efficient improvement and future development in this field.

148Social SciencesRhea Grace ManzanoManzanoChang LiuPsychology, SociologyChang LiuLiuPullman

Children’s negative affect (e.g., irritability, anger/frustration) during challenging situations is a risk factor for emerging child problem behavior (e.g., Liu et al., 2022). The few studies that have examined children’s positive affect during challenging situations suggest that children’s positive affect can help buffer the risk of negative affect and may protect children from problem behaviors. Previous work found that the presence of positive affect (e.g., smiling) in infants during the still-face interaction was associated with lower problem behaviors during toddlerhood (Moore et al., 2001). The current study examines the association between the presence vs. absence of positive affect during a challenging situation (i.e., gentle arm restraint task) at 27 months and externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 4.5 years. 

Participants were children from the Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS; Leve et al., 2019), a longitudinal parent-offspring adoption study. Children’s positive affect was assessed during a gentle arm restraint task designed to elicit anger/frustration in a child aged 27 months. The arm restraint task was administered to children (n = 431) in five 30-second episodes: toy play, arm restraint by mother, second toy play, second arm restraint, and a final toy play. Positive affect was coded from video files as the presence of joyful, excited, enthused, delighted, gleeful, or pleasantly surprised expressions based on vocal and facial cues and posture/gesture. Children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors were assessed using Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at 4.5 years based on parents’ reports. Adoptive mothers’ and fathers’ reports were averaged to create an index score for externalizing and internalizing behaviors. 

During the gentle arm restraint task, positive affect was observed in 28.3% (n = 122) of toddlers. Toddlers who did not show any positive affect during the task had higher levels of externalizing (t = 2.11, p = .04) and internalizing (t = 2.31, p = .02) behaviors. Toddlers who showed positive affect toward their mother demonstrated lower scores on problem behaviors at 4.5 years. The findings emphasize that positive affect during challenging situations may buffer against the risk for later problem behavior. 

149Research Proposal (Humanities)Akira ParkParkAshley S. BoydEnglishAshley BoydBoydPullman

Through collecting and analyzing survey data from teachers in the Pacific Northwest, this research study examines the beliefs and practices that educators employ in secondary education classrooms regarding their preparation and approach to teaching Asian American literature. The literature on English educators thus far illustrates they share common perspectives on teaching the canon (Yi, 2022), demonstrate an absence of awareness on the relevance and importance of updating readings lists (Stallworth et. al., 2006), and don’t feel prepared to assess cultural authenticity in literature (Loh, 2006). Informed by Paris Django’s (2012) culturally sustaining pedagogy—teaching methods that support the concept of cultural pluralism—the researcher will analyze responses quantitively to generate findings related to the use of texts. Additionally, the researcher will examine open-ended responses qualitatively to produce thematic findings related to participants’ knowledge, perceptions, and inclusion of Asian-American literature. The research, therefore, aims to improve the inclusion of Asian American narratives and experiences of students in the classroom.

150Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyMcKenna SpencerSpencerGinny I. Park, Victoria A. Wallingford, Alexandra N. Malena, Peter J. Yunker, Addison E. Thompson, Carrie Cuttler, Ryan J. McLaughlinNeuroscienceRyan McLaughlinMcLaughlinPullman

Clinical studies have revealed that men use cannabis at higher rates than women – however, the gender gap is slowly closing. Women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. Accordingly, women primarily use cannabis to relieve symptoms of anxiety, which can lead to issues with dependency that hasten the progression to cannabis use disorder. Thus, our laboratory has developed a translationally relevant model of cannabis use that uses response-contingent delivery of vaporized cannabis extracts. One of the most reliable findings across all the vapor studies from our laboratory is that female rats self-administer more cannabis vapor than their male counterparts, irrespective of age or strain. However, the mechanisms underlying sex differences in cannabis use remain unknown. Preclinical studies indicate that sex differences in the motivational effects of drugs are influenced by activational effects of sex hormones. Thus, we assessed whether ovarian hormones, in particular estradiol (E2), contribute to increased rates of cannabis vapor self-administration. Female rats (N=48) were randomly assigned to receive ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery. Of those rats assigned to OVX, half received an E2 implant that releases physiologically-relevant doses of E2 daily, while the other half received a placebo implant containing no E2. Following post-operative recovery, rats in each condition were trained to self-administer a vaporized cannabis extract containing 69.9% Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) at a concentration of 150 mg/ml (or vehicle vapor containing no THC) in 1-hour daily sessions according to an escalating fixed ratio (FR) reinforcement schedule for 21 consecutive days. On day 22, rats were challenged with a 3-hour progressive ratio (PR) test where the number of responses required to trigger vapor delivery was increased to assess the motivational properties of cannabis vapor. Results indicate that there is no effect of ovariectomy or E2 replacement on motivation to self-administer vaporized cannabis under any of the reinforcement schedules tested. Thus, ovarian hormones do not contribute to sex differences in cannabis self-administration in our model. Ongoing studies are currently examining whether sex differences are instead primarily due to impacts of gonadal hormones in male rats.

151Applied SciencesNhan NguyenNguyenJoseph Michaud, Heidi Hargarten, Loren Honaas, Stephen FicklinBioengineeringStephen FicklinFicklinPullman

To preserve postharvest fruit quality in apples, there are multiple storage treatments that are employed, including chilling, controlled atmosphere, and application of the Ethylene blocker 1-Methylcylocpropene (1-MCP). However, during storage, superficial scald can occur. Superficial scald is a physiological disorder that occurs following a chilling injury during the early weeks of fruit storage, but with delayed symptom development - most notably peel necrosis that occurs in irregular patterns. Apples with superficial scald, especially Granny Smith, cannot be sold to customers, causing financial loss to the industry. Currently, quantification of the superficial scald incidence is performed manually by trained technicians, often using a small set of rating values.  However, human error and individual bias, and the coarse-grained rating scale can lead to inconsistencies in the estimation of disorder severity. Here, we report on a combined model of image segmentation and machine learning techniques that detects individual apples on trays, calculates regions covered by scald, and returns a finer-scale rating of the amount of superficial scald. Provided by the Honaas lab at the USDA ARS Tree Fruit Research Lab, from 4032 images of in-storage and post-acclimation Granny Smith apples, the model was trained, validated, and evaluated exclusively on Kamiak, Washington State University’s high-performance computing cluster. During evaluation, to efficiently detect the instances on each image, a deep convolutional neural network was trained and tested. Each individual instance of apple was sequentially passed into a customized image binarizer to quantify superficial scald regions. By focusing on the difference between scalded versus non-scalded regions, the most outstanding model was able to detect superficial scald with 83.19% accuracy, increasing to approximately 92% accuracy on heavily scalded apples. For future research projects, the results could potentially be improved with a larger dataset and a rectified approach to the image segmentation/machine learning techniques. The technique discussed provides a modern and scalable approach for future maturity index projects at our research collaborators such as the Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission and the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station.

152Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesRyan CulpCulpNeuroscienceAngela HenricksHenricksPullman

Manual annotation of animal behavior videos such as the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) can be a time-consuming process. The EPM is a common standard for measuring anxiolytic and anxiogenic behaviors in rodents including mice and rats. Automation with robust and dependable video analysis programs have yet to be found or are insufficient thus far. With machine learning applications, we can create high accuracy animal tracking and detection programs through custom algorithms. The application Deep Lab Cut (DLC) is an open-source application created by Mathis Lab. It allows for custom trained detection algorithms to be made in-house or shared between labs, which allows for general or specific applications based on the given requirements.

My presentation aims to demonstrate this application as a viable product for use in any lab that requires data from animal behavior or any videos in general. DLC can also track certain states of the animal, such as identifying behavioral patterns. My testing has shown the animal can be tracked so that it will be marked with a state that relates to its position on the EPM, i.e. in the open arm section or closed arm section. This can be used to analyze videos of rodents at a speed much faster than manual observation and allow for mass scale observations and analysis with high consistency across a lab with multiple lab workers. Studies with needs for large scale testing in scenarios like the EPM benefit substantially from measurements over a large number of videos and who desire any number of observable phenomena using designated markers.

The application can train on computer processors or Nvidia graphics. Computers used in labs for data analysis can easily run DLC without an upgrade or retrofit. Operations dedicated to video labeling can be cut down and turned into tasks for training data labeling and devoted to other tasks while the algorithm trains in the background. The application had a wide variety of uses that go beyond animal analysis due to the nature of machine learning, so one’s imagination is the limit for this program.

153Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyOlivia DeGraveDeGraveGrace Curtis, Erica CrespiBiochemistryErica CrespiCrespiPullman

Regenerative medicine is a highly important area of study for the advancement of wound treatment. The human body typically responds to injury with scarring, leaving the tissue unable to fully regain its original function. By studying organisms capable of regeneration, such as Xenopus frogs, we can better understand the basis of regrowth and regeneration. Xenopus are capable of completely regenerating their hindlimbs and tails before metamorphosis, making them a common model for development and regeneration. Prior work in our lab has shown that injection of the hormone leptin into the body cavity accelerates regeneration in both the limbs and tails of X. laevis larvae. But, since leptin can act as a neuroendocrine factor, binding in the brain and causing secretion of other growth factors, I am developing a method to topically apply leptin protein directly to the wound site to observe the direct effects of leptin on regenerating cells. Regeneration-competent (NF 53) X. laevis larvae will be anesthetized and their tails will be amputated ~5 mm from the tail tip. The larvae will be transferred to customized agarose plates so that the amputated tail region will sit in a well that will be filled with either buffer or buffer containing 100 ng/mL Texas Red-conjugated leptin protein, a dose shown to stimulate cell proliferation of tissue in culture experiments. Larvae will remain in place for 15, 30, and 60 minutes under light anesthesia. A fluorescence microscope will be used to detect the Texas Red dye to determine whether the leptin protein has perfused the wound site at each time point. The regenerated area will be measured daily for 96 hours. Using the regenerated area and dye perfusion data, we will determine whether this mode of topical leptin administration at the time of injury promotes wound healing and greater regeneration. Not only will this research allow us to determine the direct effects of leptin receptor activation in the process of regeneration, it will also validate topical administration of leptin as a veterinary therapy to improve wound healing and regeneration in amphibians.

154Engineering and Physical SciencesRaine AntonioAntonioJohn M. Bussey, Malin C. J. Dixon Wilkins, John S. McCloyMaterials Science and EngineeringJohn McCloyMcCloyPullman

Within the Na2O, Fe2O3, SiO2 ternary phase diagram, a unique isochemically crystalizing glass forms with the composition Na5FeSi4O12. When a crystal, this mineral is named the 5.1.8 phase because of the ratio of its precursors. This glass, and Na5MSi4O12-type silicates generally, are of academic interest as a model system for geologic and radioactive waste management applications, as well as Na-ion conductors for next generation batteries. This study examines the role of substitutions of Al in the Fe site of Na5FeSi4O12 glasses and crystals by synthesizing a glass series with differing amounts Al2O3 and Fe2O3 while retaining the 5.1.8 stoichiometry. Thermal analysis is utilized to determine glass transition temperatures (Tg) and crystallization temperatures (Tc) to inform crystalizing heat treatments. The resulting crystals will be characterized with X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Since Al in Al2O3 has the same oxidation sate as Fe in Na5FeSi4O12, there is potential for previously unreported crystals to be observed with a similar structure to Na5FeSi4O12. Further, the glass structure will be probed through methods potentially including Raman Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy, and X-ray pair-distribution function analysis in order to observe the role played by Fe and Al on the structure, properties, and thermodynamics of silicate melts and minerals. Ultimately, this research program strives to better understand the contribution of Fe and Al towards configurational entropy in silicate minerals and glasses. This determination will improve understanding of geologic processes and iron containing glasses

155Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyScott StevisonStevisonJohn WyrickGenetics and Cell BiologyJohn WyrickWyrickPullman

When exposed to UV irradiation, various forms of DNA damage may arise between neighboring pyrimidine DNA bases, including cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). These types of DNA damage can cause mutations that lead to skin cancers, such as melanoma. A key unresolved question is how the binding of proteins to DNA in cells affects the induction of UV damage. Previous studies have suggested that the binding of certain transcription factor (TF) proteins to DNA can either suppress or induce DNA damage. This study shows that transcription factors such as the Hap2/3/5 complex can modulate CPD formation at their binding motifs. Additionally, we have applied a new analysis technique using these transcription factor binding motifs and CPD enrichment data to search for unidentified binding sites for many transcription factors, including the Hap2/3/5 complex.

156Research Proposal (Social Sciences)Felicia AdesopeAdesopeRobert E. CrosslerAccounting, Management Information SystemsRobert CrosslerCrosslerPullman

As social media usage has increased, there has also been a drastic increase in the rate of mass shootings within the United States. Utilizing the Socio-Technical Model, we will look at the interconnection between technology, actors, tasks, and structure through the lens of Information System Change. For this research study, we have collected data using the Mother Jones Mass Shooting Database in order to get a general list of all United States mass shootings between 2004 to 2022, the inception of social media, where 3 or more people were killed. From that general list, we have categorized that data based on the Socio-Technical Model. Following this, we will analyze the data to find the correlation between all of these factors in order to understand the role of social media & technology on mass shootings within the United States. We believe that this research will provide insight that will allow social media and technology companies to collaborate with Law Enforcement Agencies so that threats can be discovered before attacks occur in an effort to save lives.

157Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyNolan MiddletonMiddletonGenetics and Cell Biology, MathematicsEric SheldenSheldenPullman

Pediatric neuroblastoma is among the most common solid tumors in children and accounts for approximately 15% of childhood cancer mortalities. However, few common genetic variations have been associated with neuroblastoma development, and none have been established as predictive factors for patient survival in neuroblastoma cases. The goal of the present study was to determine if analyzing genetic variations in functional groups of genes could produce better insights into the relationship between genetic variation and patient survival than consideration of individual variants alone. Here, functional enrichment analysis, a computational method used to identify sets of genes associated with a common biological system or pathway, was used to analyze the relationship between genetic variations and survival times in neuroblastoma cases. Results of this analysis were compared to results obtained through survival analysis based on consideration of individual genetic variations alone. Variations in only one individual gene displayed a significant association with reduced survival: ALK (ALK receptor tyrosine kinase), which is a known hallmark of neuroblastoma. In contrast, variations in 131 biological systems identified by functional enrichment analysis were significantly associated with reduced patient survival. As expected, genetic variation in genes associated with the ALK signaling pathway displayed a highly significant association with reduced survival. However, 118 functional gene groups lacked any association with ALK, representing potentially novel genetic variations that may impact patient survival. Of these 118 groups, 27 showed a more significant association with altered survival than the ALK signaling pathway itself. Of the 10 groups that displayed the most significant association with altered survival, 3 involved the formation of collagen family members, and the system with the most significant association with altered survival was defined by co-expression with PPP3CB-AS1, a non-coding RNA. These results demonstrate that novel risk factors associated with altered survival in childhood neuroblastoma patients can be identified by incorporating analysis of functional gene groups and illustrate the potential of systems-level analysis to generate insight in cancer biology.

158Research Proposal (Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information Sciences)Ella Blevins, Brenden Dillingham, Elissa Koozer, Robert TemplinBlevinsMichael Hatfield, Hannah Hillsberg, Andrew Krieg, Davide GiarritielloMathematics, Accounting, Finance, Management Information Systems, Computer ScienceJeff PerryPerryPullman

The Boeing Company personnel spend a considerable amount of time searching for non-conformance airplane parts in multiple unintegrated digital databases. Currently analysis personnel use a guess-and-check process in conjunction with a 3D (CAD) viewer that has few indicators to help the user find the location of the needed part of an airplane. A streamlined solution to connect multiple processes and databases does not yet exist.

Our research in partnership with the key stakeholder (The Boeing Company) has defined the problems presented above. Since true access to systems and data is limited due to security clearance, our team has worked closely with our Boeing mentors. 

We initially investigated creating a new database and importing all information from existing systems. However, this only solves the problem for a short time until our system becomes out of date, like the current systems. Additionally, this solution would extend outside the scope of Boeing’s resources. A different solution was needed.

After consulting our mentors, we changed our focus to a web-based tool that will query existing databases and provide links to relevant webpages. Important information such as part number, plane model, and defect type will be previewed to allow the user to easily filter the results. Additionally, our user interface will include a 2D representation of the location of the data point on the specific aircraft model.

159Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyHannah JohnsonJohnsonGenetics and Cell BiologyAzeez Abdul, Phil batesAbdulPullman

Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) are long carbon chains with hydroxyl (OH) groups attached that are synthesized renewably from plants and serve as chemical feedstocks for a variety of scientific, commercial, and industrial purposes, including but not limited to cosmetics, paints and coatings, lubricants, plastics, and bioplastics. The most popular source of HFAs has typically been oil from the Ricinus communis plant, commonly known as castor, the production of which yields the neurotoxin ricin as a byproduct, driving researchers to search for non-toxic, renewable, high-yield alternatives. One such approach utilizes functional genomics to reduce the expression of two sets of proteins that negatively regulate fatty acid synthesis: the carboxyltransferase interactors (CTIs) and biotin attachment domain-containing (BADC) proteins. The silencing of the genes encoding for these proteins in model organism Arabidopsis thaliana has already lead to a 10-20 ug/mg increase in lipid content of dry leaves in comparison to knocking out only the CTI proteins or only the BADC proteins. Due to homology with the model organism, this combined functional genomics method may be used in other organisms such as Physaria fendleri and other members of the Brassicaceae mustard family to provide a sustainable, non-toxic alternative to castor oil.

160Organismal, Population, Ecological, and Evolutionary BiologyIan NickelsNickelsForestryHenry AdamsAdamsPullman

Bark beetles are a substantial ecological force and a potential danger to many forests stands across the US. Bark beetles will penetrate a tree’s bark and eat the phloem of the tree. Resin, produced by a resin duct, is the main defense for pine trees against bark beetles. The larger the resin ducts or the higher the density of resin ducts, the more the tree is defended against potential bark beetle attacks. There is evidence that suggests that low-intensity fire can encourage the development of resin ducts. The purpose of my research is to study potential temporal variation following a fire. Two sites were identified on the Harold Osborne Experimental Forest near Viola, Idaho. Both sites contained Pinus ponderosa in moderate to high density (Site 1: 130 ft^2/acre, Site 2: 110 ft^2/acre). Site 1 had been exposed to 2 previous prescribed burns with no physical damage evident. Site 2 had never been burned, but was logged 1 year prior to sampling. Fixed area plots were conducted and 10 Pinus ponderosa from both sites had core samples taken. Following sampling, cores were processed and the following metrics were calculated: mean duct size per ring, the total number of ducts per ring, duct area per ring, total number of ducts per ring divided by ring area, total duct area divided by total ring area (expressed as a percent). Preliminary results show a statistically significant increase in the total resin duct area and average duct size. The total duct area for the first 5 years following a burn shows an increase in total size by 41% and an increase in the average duct size by 26%. The increase in the total duct area slowly returns to a comparable level to the control site. The number of ducts was shown to not be statistically significant. This suggests that recurrent fire is required in order to keep a high level of production of total resin duct area, average duct size, and total duct area. Further analysis is required to show a potential difference in the total number of ducts per ring divided by ring area, and total duct area divided by total ring area.

161Engineering and Physical SciencesLaina WyrickWyrickPhilip MarstonPhysics and AstronomyPhilip MarstonMarstonPullman

When a physical system experiences a disturbance from a state of equilibrium, it will often respond by vibrating harmonically. This is seen in the case of a wire under tension that vibrates when it is plucked. Each physical system has a specific frequency at which it freely vibrates, after experiencing such a disturbance. This frequency is called the Natural Frequency of the system, and its specific value is determined by the system’s physical characteristics. However, it is often desirable to adjust or control the Natural Frequency at which a harmonic oscillator freely vibrates. Therefore, the aim of our research was to use a feedback signal from a harmonically oscillating wire to control the natural frequency of the wire’s vibrations, without physically altering the wire’s tension or length. This feedback signal was proportional to the wire’s displacement from its equilibrium position, and was produced using optical sensors that detected the wire’s motion. An electric current proportional to this feedback signal was passed through the vibrating wire placed in a static magnetic field. The current moving through the wire resulted in transverse Maxwell stresses on the wire. Using this feedback signal, we succeeded in either increasing or decreasing our wire’s natural frequency, increasing the frequency by as much as approximately 5%. Our wire's behavior under these conditions serves as a model for all mechanical systems that oscillate harmonically, therefore our results on Natural Frequency control can be applied to a wide range of mechanical systems. Vibrations control is an extremely important subject in a variety of mechanical applications, and thus our research offers a new approach to controlling the oscillations of a wire.

162Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Information SciencesKallie DistlerDistlerDaryl DefordPsychologyDaryl DefordDefordPullman

The formation of social ties between young students and their interaction patterns during classroom activities is relevant to many aspects of social development throughout the lifespan. Several recent papers have attempted to quantify the impacts of Developmental Language Disorders on the formation of social interaction networks within classrooms in order to understand potential behavioral correlates among young children. In this project we are proposing and evaluating several different mechanisms of network formation, focusing on the formation of ties generated when a new student joins a classroom. In particular, we are generating models that attempt to describe likely behavioral patterns for students introduced to a new environment. For each of these models, we evaluate several natural network statistics to understand how the selection and formation process changes the global and local social structures within the classroom.

163Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyHope Grenz, Sydney SwatzellGrenzRita Fuchs, Jobe Ritchie, Shuyi QiBiology, NeuroscienceRita FuchsFuchsPullman

Substance use disorder is a chronic, relapsing disorder that continues to increase in prevalence. Drug relapse remains a major impediment to sustained recovery even after periods of drug abstinence, such as during rehabilitation. Exposure to environmental stimuli previously associated with cocaine elicits retrieval of drug memories that can cause craving and drug relapse. After retrieval, cocaine memories become labile and require memory reconsolidation into long-term memory stores to maintain their strength over time. Our laboratory has shown that corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in the basolateral amygdala is necessary for memory reconsolidation, and basolateral amygdala-projecting corticotropin-releasing factor neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are activated during memory reconsolidation. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to determine whether the dorsal raphe nucleus to basolateral amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor pathway is necessary for cocaine-memory reconsolidation in a rat model of cocaine relapse. We trained Sprague-Dawley rats to lever press for intravenous cocaine infusions in a distinct environmental context over ten days, then exposed the rats to a different environmental context where responses were not reinforced. We then re-exposed the rats to the cocaine-predictive context to elicit the recall and destabilization of cocaine memories. Using a circuit and cell-type specific chemogenetic approach, we selectively inactivated corticotropin-releasing factor projections between the dorsal raphe nucleus and basolateral amygdala after cocaine memories were made labile through recall. The effect of this manipulation on cocaine memory strength was then assessed by re-exposing the rats to the cocaine-paired context three days later and measuring the magnitude of drug-seeking behavior in the cocaine-predictive context. Inactivation of the dorsal raphe nucleus to basolateral amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor pathway during memory reconsolidation reduced cocaine-seeking (i.e., active-lever responding in a cocaine-predictive context) at test compared to no inactivation. This finding suggests that this pathway may be necessary for maintaining the strength of cocaine-related long-term memories. Ongoing control experiments will determine if our manipulation elicited a genuine memory reconsolidation deficit dependent on memory destabilization. The results of this study will advance our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate cocaine memories that cause relapse and may inform the development of future anti-relapse treatments.

164Molecular, Cellular, and Chemical BiologyOlivia RennRennIrlbeck, N., Engle, T. E., Loh, H. Y.Animal SciencesNancy IrlbeckIrlbeckPullman

Copper is required in all animal diets; but sheep are traditionally more susceptible to copper toxicity (25 ppm). Due to the sensitivity of copper levels, most sheep are not able to dispose of excess copper, therefore when ingested copper exceeds the normal range, toxicity occurs. Copper absorption occurs in the small intestine with excess copper stored in the liver. Excess copper will accumulate in the tissues of the liver over time. Eventually copper is released into the bloodstream, killing erythrocytes, and causing toxicity. It has been found that some rare wool breeds of sheep are fed copper levels higher than 25 ppm. If not fed higher levels of copper, copper deficiency occurs. For this research, opportunistic liver and small intestine samples were collected from three harvested Lincoln lambs (IACUC waived). One cm samples of each section of the small intestine were collected from each lamb. Samples were sliced open, washed with PBS solution, scraped to collect the lumen lining, and placed into a conical tube with an RNA solution. A one cm cubed sample of liver from each lamb was collected, washed with PBS solution, and placed in an RNA solution. All intestinal and liver samples were stored at four degrees Celsius for transportation to Colorado State University. At CSU relative gene expression testing and Real Time PCR tests were conducted to amplify the DNA for additional gene expression and recognition of copper transporter proteins. The Real Time PCR test uses specific forward and reverse primers that copy particular target sequences of DNA, allowing for further understanding of gene expression and copper transporters. Unique attributes of copper transporters were found in the Lincoln lambs when compared to other domestic species. These transporters are the primary proteins responsible for importing dietary copper across microvilli in cells when it reaches the small intestine, aiding in the metabolism of copper. Understanding the molecular aspects of copper absorption, metabolism, and toxicity in sheep will allow insight on the proper dietary requirements of copper for heritage long wool or colored wool sheep breeds.

165HumanitiesDiego Bante Rivera, Mackenzie Brinton, Anh Dao, CJ Hilgaertner, Alex Stuart, Uma Vangapaty, Josilyn WatsonBante RiveraAccounting, Finance, Psychology, International Business, Management, Management Information Systems, Bioengineering, Environmental and Ecosystem SciencesNancy Swanger, Jeffrey PerrySwangerPullman

Purpose is important. The senior living industry acknowledges that fostering positive relationships between community residents and younger generations, often referred to as “purpose matchmaking", could improve mental and physical health outcomes, regardless of age group identity.  This includes, but is not limited to, reduced risk of depression, anxiety, and other health issues, due to the mitigation of isolation. Social Capital Theory recognizes that the transfer of complex knowledge occurs through the development of strong interpersonal connections that span generations. Social capital is a set of resources inherent in family relationships and community organizations that are crucial for cognitive and social development. There are two distinct forms of social capital: horizontal and vertical. Horizontal capital refers to the relationships among members of a social group, such as within a senior living community, while vertical social capital refers to the relationships bridging social groups Multigenerational relationships can promote a sense of community and purpose through shared identities and interests. Mentor-mentee relations could bridge generational gaps, promote thoughtful discussions, and transfer experiential knowledge intergenerationally while promoting community engagement and cohesion. Through these functions, intergenerational mentorships could cultivate rich social capital for participating parties. Quantitative surveys were conducted to assess the current state of intergenerational relationships within the local Pullman community. It was found that there is a lack of sufficient programs aimed at integrating university students and the senior (55+) population. It is notable that knowledge derived from theoretical reasoning, referred to as a priori, is prominent in academic settings while knowledge derived from experience, referred to as a posteriori, is inherent in aged populations. The collaboration of these knowledge sets through mentorships, specifically when centered on career exploration and development, could accumulate substantial social value. Mentorships programs, such as proposed here, would require institutional support to facilitate interactions between participants, which functions as a means of vertical social capital.  

166Engineering and Physical SciencesAva Doney, Charlie Gartenberg, Connor Hansford, Emily Johnson, Karen Opfer, Harrison ShinoharaDoneyFinance, Management Information Systems, Mechanical Engineering, Public Relations, MathematicsJeffery PerryPerryPullman

At Boeing, airplane manufacturing personnel have to work on panels that serve as a temporary walking and working surface before the airplane floor is built. These surface panels are incredibly important for the safety of employees and essential to building the plane. The problem is that the current material that Boeing uses, aluminum clad plywood, is very heavy which offers limitations and ergonomic issues for the workers.

The goal of our research was to find a material that is lighter than the current aluminum clad plywood, but still meets the stress, weight, cost reparability and flammability requirements of Boeing in order to withstand the manufacturing environment. Prior to testing, we researched a wide variety of materials and narrowed down our options based on material properties and feasibility.

The materials that met the criteria for replacing the aluminum clad plywood were researched in better detail. The four materials we determined suitable for testing were ABS plastic, garolite, and aluminum honeycomb. Moving forward, we will be testing samples of these materials to determine the actual strength using the three point flexural test. After comparing this testing data to theoretical values we have found, we will determine which materials could be the best replacement for the aluminum clad plywood.

167Arts and DesignAna Borgheriu, Paul Delashaw, Harleen KennedyBorgheriuHarleen Kennedy, Ana BorgheriuInterior Design, Landscape Architecture, Architectural StudiesRobert Krikac, Michael SanchezKrikacPullman

LaCrosse is a rural community in Whitman County, Washington, with a prosperous agricultural industry and unique geological history. The town has several historic Missoula Flood rock buildings they seek to re-purpose. Using a co-design method for community engagement, a group of interdisciplinary students and faculty within WSU’s School of Design and Construction, the Rural Communities Design Initiative (RCDI), led workshops determining how best to integrate the historic buildings. Conversations and meetings in this process created the goal of an Ice Age Floods Museum. The LaCrosse Ice Age Flood Museum will tell the story of the people, land, and agriculture making up the rich community while being an adaptive reuse of historic buildings and providing greater interest to the town.

Case studies, site visits, and community workshops were part of the co-design process to determine the program and develop a plan for the site. A case study and visit to the REACH Museum in Richland, WA, allowed the RCDI team to understand what display practices may work best for LaCrosse. Meetings with National Park Service representatives created an understanding of how to integrate the site with the Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail. Most importantly, a series of community workshops created a design representing the goals and desires of the local community.

The first meetings with the community created a series of project goals, while time spent on site created an understanding of site conditions, influencing project design. Next, conceptual work was developed, reviewed, and modified with the community to create a strong design and move forward. Finally, after a series of final meetings, a proposed design was completed and given to the community to move forward with professional architectural and engineering firms.

The work of the RCDI provides LaCrosse with an overall site plan and engages students in an exceptional experience in working with communities and research. In addition, meetings with communities and professionals provide experiences that cannot be replicated within the classroom; interdisciplinary work creates designers who can handle more complex design challenges.

168Arts and DesignAna Borgheriu, Harleen Kennedy, Isabella Loera, Lakshita MalhortaBorgheriuInterior Design, Architectural Studies, Construction Management, Landscape ArchitectureRobert Krikac, Michael SanchezKrikacPullman

The Rural Communities Design Initiative (RCDI) is an interdisciplinary team of interior design, architecture, and landscape architecture students and faculty. We collaborate with non-profits and underrepresented communities to envision solutions to their built environment challenges using a co-design process. Co-design is a process that combines design expertise with community engagement to build consensus among community members. It is focused on “designing with,” not “designing for.”

The RCDI partnered with the cities of Santa, Fernwood, and Elmira in the Idaho panhandle to envision a new Tri-Community library. The New Library Team contacted RCDI in the spring of 2021 to request assistance in designing a new building to replace their aging library in Fernwood, Idaho. That summer, an initial site visit was done to develop a clear understanding of the project and meet the stakeholders.

In the fall, the RCDI team conducted the initial co-design session in Fernwood, where the goals and needs of the community were clarified. Prior to the meeting, RCDI researched case studies of other rural community libraries. The case studies were presented during the meeting to help the stakeholders see how other communities had addressed similar issues. Images of roof types, building materials, building forms, furniture, and site features were presented to the stakeholders to get feedback on the proper look and feel of the new library.

RCDI created initial conceptual designs for the building and site based on the input and presented them to the New Library Team at the end of the year. The designs provided traditional enclosed library spaces and outdoor learning and gathering spaces. Based on the comments from the co-design session, RCDI developed revised plans which they worked on remotely with the clients while in progress. The final conceptual building plans and site plans were presented in a spring workshop.

The New Library Team has contracted with an architectural firm currently preparing design plans to obtain accurate construction costs, grant proposals, and fundraising with the hopes that a new building will be constructed soon.

169Arts and DesignHarleen Kennedy, Isabella Loera, Lakshita MalhotraBorgheriuArchitectural Studies, Interior Design, Landscape ArchitectureRobert Krikac, Michael SanchezKrikacPullman

Interdisciplinary design and co-design are integral to building healthier and more unified sites which reflect a community's needs. These design processes require communicating with multiple stakeholders and professional fields, taking advantage of various perspectives and expertise, and integrating them into one cohesive design.

The Rural Communities Design Initiative (RCDI) partnered with the Lewis County Fire District No. 4 (LCFD#4), in Morton, Washington, and Rice Fergus Miller Architecture (RFM) to envision a plan for the construction of a new fire facility that would support the City of Morton and surrounding communities. The current facility does not support the needs of the community, so an interdisciplinary group of WSU architecture, landscape architecture, and interior design students in RCDI collaborated to envision the ideas and goals of the community graphically.

The initial work progressed with LCFD#4 welcoming the RCDI team to visit the site and speak about issues with the current facility. With the help of the fire station district officers and RFM’s expertise, RCDI formed a dialogue that became the foundation of the new fire station design. The on-site workshop consisted of a brainstorming session which helped in recognizing the needs and wants of the community as well as identifying the design issues and their possible solutions. RFM shared typical layouts of different functional spaces within fire stations in addition to the concept of “healthy in/healthy out” practices to keep the firefighters safe from contaminants when returning to the fire facility after an incident. The collaboration with RFM allowed students to engage with industry professionals and ensure that the design met codes and regulations.

The series of diagrams and drawings created by RCDI and RFM will allow the stakeholders to imagine a new fire station that would serve Lewis County and address the needs of Morton and other Lewis County communities. These conceptual drawings will aid LCFD#4 in their grant application process to secure funding for the new facility and give them a foundation to build upon when they acquire the resources to begin the project.